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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, N - Textile Dictionary

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Letter N 

Nadiri: A kind of jackets, worn as an outer garment. The Emperor Jehangir described it in his memoirs as "a coat they wear over a qaba. Its length is from the waist down to below the thighs, and it has no sleeves. It is fastened in front with buttons". 

Nainsook: A fine, light, plain-woven cotton fabric with a soft finish. 

Nainsook: A lightweight, plain weave cotton fabric. Used for lingerie, baby clothes. 

Nainsook: A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric, usually finished to create a luster and a soft hand. Common end-uses are infants' wear, blouses, and lingerie. 

Name: Glossary. 

Nanofiber: Refers to fibers that are typically manufactuered through an electrospinning process, which spins fibers in diameters ranging from 10nm (nanometers) to several hundred nanometers, but usually less than 1,000 nm. In scientific terms, nanofibers are generally considered as having a diameter of less than one micron. The name nanofiber comes from the nanometer, which is a scientific unit of measurement representing a billionth of a meter, or three to four atoms wide. Current uses for nanofiber technology is in the fields of medical products, consumer products, industrial products, and high-tech applications for aerospace, capacitors, transistors, drug delivery systems, battery separators, energy storage, filtration, fuel cells, and information technology. 

Nanometer: This measurement used to describe a nanofiber refers to 1 billionth of a meter, or 1 x 10-8 centimeter. 150,000 strands of a nanofiber can fit across a human hair. 

Nano-technology: Complex technology that involves nano-size materials and combines science such as biology, chemistry and physics and engineering. 

Nap: A fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface. The fabric can be napped on either one or both sides. 

Nap: (1) A Fibrous Surface, Produced On A Fabric Or Felt, In Which Part Of The Fibre Is Raised From The Basic Structure., Note: Originally Nap And Pile Were Used Synonymously, But The Present Trend Of Using The Two Terms For Different Concepts Is To Be Encouraged As Providing A Means Of Differentiation And Avoidance Of Confusion. (2) A Local Variation, Used In The Flax-processing Industry, Of Nep. (3) In Raw Cotton, Matted Clumps Of Fibres Which Are Entangled More Loosely Than Those In Neps. 

Napping: The raising of fibers on the face of the goods by means of teasels or rollers covered with card clothing (steel wires) that are about one inch in height. Action by either method raises the protruding fibers and causes the finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer, makes the cloth more compact, causes the fabric to become softer in hand or smoother in feel, increases durability and covers the minute areas between the interlacings or the warp and the filling. 

Napped: See Brushed/ Napped. 

Naqsha: Pattern; Scheme. 

Nastaliq: One Of The Many Scripts In Which Persian Characters Can Be Written. 

Natio: A Kind Of Cap Popular In Gujarat And Rajasthan. It Consists Generally Of A Woven Piece And Headband, With A Long Flap, Which Hangs At The Back To Cover The Neck. 

Natural: Refers To The Color Of The Fiber As Found In Nature, I.e. Unbleached And Undyed. Linen And Linen Blends Are Often Sold In Their Natural Brown Color. 

Natural & Color: Refers To Yarn Dye Fabrics Which Combine Natural Yarns And Colored Yarns In The Design. 

Natural Dyes: Dyes that are made from mineral, vegetable (plant) or animal; otherwise obtained from natural sources. The most common types include Indigo, Cochineal, Lac, Logwood, Madder, Munjeet, Catechu, Brazilwood, Osage Orange, Fustic, Weld, Tannin, and Quercitron. 

Natural And Overprint: Refers To Printing Done On A Natural Ground. 

Natural Flax: Scutched Flax Produced From Deseeded Straw Without Any Intermediate Treatment Such As Retting. 

Natural Vegetable Fibers: These are normally comprised of cellulose and include the following: Bamboo, Coir, Cotton, Flax, Hemp, Jute, Kenaf, Linen, Manila, Pina, Raffia, Ramie, and Sisal. 

Nautical: Refers To Motifs With A Nautical Or Maritime Theme. 

Navel: In Rotor Spinning A Device, Aligned On The Axis Of The Rotor, Through Which The Yarn Is Withdrawn. 

Neck: In The Process Of Drawing Synthetic Filaments Or Films, The Relatively Short Length Over Which A Reduction In Cross-sectional Area Occurs As A Result Of Stretching Beyond A Critical Value., Note: Commercial Drawing Processes For Man-made Fibres And Films Do Not Necessarily Involve The Formation Of A Neck. 

Neckcloth: Term Used From The 17th Century Until Ca. 1840 To Describe Either A Cravat, Stock, Kerchief Or Bandanna Worn Around The Neck. 

Necking (synthetic Fibres): The Sudden Reduction In Diameter That May Occur When An Undrawn Filament Is Stretched. 

Needled: A Type Of Nonwoven In Which The Fibers Are Entangled And Mechanically Bonded By Needle Punching. 

Needlepoint Lace: A Method Of Making Lace By Buttonhole Stitches Using An Embroidery Needle And Thread On A Heavy Paper Base. 

Neglige Cap: 18th Century Term For A Cap Worn Within The House And Also Informally. 

Nep: A Small Knot Of Entangled Fibres. (in The Case Of Cotton It Usually Comprises Dead Or Immature Cotton Hairs.) 

Nep: Small Knots Of Fiber Embedded In The Yarn. May Be Intentional Or Unintentional. 

Neppy Yarn.: A Yarn In Which The Incidence Of Nep Occurs At A Relatively High Level And So Constitutes A Fault., Note: Neppy Yarns Are Sometimes Used Purposely As Decoration. 

Net: An open mesh fabric of rayon, nylon, cotton, or silk; made in a variety of geometric-shaped meshes of different sizes and weights, matched to various end-uses. The net is made by knotting the intersections of thread or cord to form the mesh. 

Nett Silk: Raw-silk Filaments Or Strands That Have Been Processed Into Yams By Twisting And Folding Or Both. Also Descriptive Of Fabrics Produced From Nett Silk. 

Nettle: A sustainable and organic fiber derived from a coarse, wild herb. It is naturally moth-repellant. 

Neutral-dyeing Acid Dye: An Acid Dye That From A Neutral Bath Has Useful Substantivity For Wool, Silk Or Polyamide. 

New Zealand Flax: Phormium Tenax - An Indigenous New Zealand Plant And The Fibre Obtained From Its Leaves Is Sometimes Called New Zealand Flax Or Hemp, Although Now Grown In Other Countries. 

Nightcap: Worn In Bed Or In The 16th To 18th Centuries Informally Within The House. Those Worn By Men Were Often Exquisitely Embroidered. 

Nimainimatana: A Kind Of Tunic, A Modified Version Of The Kurta (q.v.), Generally Made Of Fine Material. 

Ninon: A Lightweight, Smooth, Plain Weave, Open Mesh Fabric. It Is Usually Of Synthetic Fiber. Used For Evening Wear, Curtains, Lingerie. 

Ninon: A lightweight, plain weave, made of silk or manufactured fibers, with an open mesh-like appearance. Since the fabric is made with high twist filament yarns, it has a crisp hand. End uses include eveningwear and curtains. 

Nip: The Line Or Area Of Contact Or Proximity Between Two Contiguous Surfaces That Move So As To Compress And/or Control The Velocity Of Textile Material Passed Between Them. 

Nip Roller: One Of A Pair Of Rollers Intended To Run With Their Cylindrical Surfaces In Contact Or Separated Yarn Or Other Textile Material., Note: The Two Rollers Are Intended To Have The Same Surface Speed And One Normally Drives Other By Frictional Contact. 

No Wale Corduroy: A Corduroy With A Short All Over Cut Pile And Thus No Visible Wale. 

Noil (wool): The Shorter Fibres Separated From The Longer Fibres In Combing. 

Noil; Bourette (silk): The Fibres Extracted During Silk Dressing Or That Are Too Short For Producing Spun Silk. These Fibres Usually Spun On The Condenser System To Produce What Are Known As Silk Noil Yarns. 

Non-ionic Dye: A Dye That Does Not Dissociate Electrolytically In Aqueous Solution. 

Nonwoven Fabric: In General, A Textile Structure Made Directly From Fibre Rather Than Yarn. Fabrics Are Normally Made From Extruded Continuous Filaments Or From Fibre Webs Or Batts Strengthened By Bonding Using Various Techniques: These Include Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Interlocking By Needling Or Fluid Jet Entanglement, Thermal Bonding And Stitch Bonding., Note: Opinions Vary As To The Range Of Fabrics To Be Classified As Nonwoven. The Controversial Areas Are: (i) Wet-laid Fabrics, Containing Wood Pulp, In Which The Boundary With Paper Is Not Clear, (ii) Stitch-bonded Fabrics, Which Contain Some Yarn For Bonding Purposes; (iii) Needled Fabrics Containing Reinforcing Fabric. 

Nonwoven Fabric: A textile structure held together by interlocking of fibers in a random web, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. Generally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5 inches are used. 

Nonwoven Fabric Thermally-bonded: Textile Fabric Composed Of A Web Or Batt Of Fibres Containing Heat-sensitive Material, Bonded By The Application Of Heat, With Or Without Pressure. The Heat-sensitive Materials May Be In The Form Of Fibres, Bicomponent Fibres Or Powders. 

Nottingham Lace: A wide machine made lace. Originally made in Nottingham England. 

Novelty: A general term that refers to a fabric that is not basic or common, I.e. One that has unusual or special effects in the yarn, weave, coloring or finishing. 

Novelty Yarn: A yarn that is intentionally produced to have a special or unique effect. These effects can be produced by twisting together uneven single yarns, by using yarns that contain irregularities, or by twisting yarns that contain a color variance. A slubbed yarn is an example of a novelty yarn. 

Number Of Yarn: See Count. 

Nun's Veiling: A plain weave, lightweight, sheer fabric of high quality usually found in black or white. May be made of wool silk cotton or synthetics. Named for it's original use by religious orders. 

Nylon (synthetic Fibre) (generic Name): See polyamide (synthetic Fibre). 

Nylon: Produced in 1938, the first completely synthetic fiber developed. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide. 

Nylon Fibre ''polyamide fibre'': The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer in which the linkage of the simple chemical compound or compounds used in its production takes place through the formation of amide groups. NOTE: Polyamides are distinguished from one another by the number of carbon atoms in the recurring unit or units for polyamides made from two reactants, e.g. Nylon 6 and Nylon 6.6. 

Nytril: A manufactured fiber, most often used in sweaters or pile fabrics, where little or no pressing is recommended, as the fiber has a low softening or melting point. However, it has also been successfully used in blends with wool for the purpose of minimizing shrinkage and improving the shape retention in garments. 

Nytril (fibre) (US): A term used to describe manufactured fibers containing at least 85% of a long-chain polymer of 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene dinitrile) where the vinylidene dinitrile content is no less than every other unit in the polymer chain. 

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