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BASIC CONCEPTS OF TEXTILE

Clothing
General Classification Of Textile
Each day each of us makes decisions about textiles. From the simplest choice of what clothes to wear to the commitment of a major portion of the family budget to buy a new carpet, judgments about the performance, durability, attractiveness, and care of textiles are consciously or unconsciously made. The economic implications of decisions about fibers, yarns, and fabrics obviously increase if someone is involved professionally with textiles. But whether or not understanding textiles is required for personal or for professional purposes, the key to informed decision making is knowledge about fibers, yarns, fabrics, and finishes and the ways in which these are interrelated.

Textiles fulfill so many purposes in our lives that their study can be approached in a number of ways. Textiles may be seen as being purely utilitarian, in relationship to the numerous purposes they serve. On awaking in the morning, for example, we climb out from under sheets and blankets and step into slippers and a robe. We wash our faces with washcloths, dry them with towels, and put on clothing for the day. Even the bristles of our toothbrushes are made from textile fibers. If we get into a car or bus, we sit on upholstered seats; the machine moves on tires reinforced with strong Textile cords. We stand on carpets, sit on upholstered furniture, and look out of curtained windows. The insulation of our houses may be glass textile fiber. Not only are golf clubs, tennis rackets, and ski poles reinforced with textile fibers, but so are roads, bridges, and buildings. Strong, heat-resistant textile fibers in the nose cones of spaceships travel to distant planets. Physicians implant artificial arteries made of textiles or use fibers for surgery that gradually dissolve as wounds heal. Few of our manufactured products could be made without textile conveyor belts. Even our processed roods have been filtered through textile filter paper. There is truly no aspect of modern life that is untouched by some area of textiles.

Even though we all personally experience textiles at home, at work, and at play, "usually encounter only the complete product; rarely do we deal with the individual components. But each finished product makes a long journey from its beginnings in the laboratory or on the farm to the place where it is acquired by the ultimate consumer. If you were to take the shirt or sweater that you are wearing at this moment and break it down into its components, you would have to work backward, taking apart the fabric structure. Most likely your garment is woven or knitted. Weaving and knitting are the two most common means of creating fabrics for apparel, although other methods do exist. Both weaving and knitting are subject to a great many possible variations, and these differences contribute to the enormous variability in appearance, drapability, texture, wrinkle recovery, durability, feel, and many other qualities of fabrics. To take a woven or knitted structure apart requires that the fabric be unraveled into the yarns from which it was constructed. The yarns (with some few exceptions) are likely to have been made from short or long continuous fibers that are twisted together. By untwisting the yarns, it should be possible to separate the yarn into a number of small, fine, hairlike fibers. These fibers are the basic units that make up the majority of textile products encountered in apparel and home furnishings.

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Mineral fibres
These are of limited importance in the textile trade. Asbestos is the most useful of this class; it is made into special fire-proof and industrial fabrics.
Man-made fibres can be sub-divided into two distinct classes, according to the source of the fibre-forming substance from which they are made.
-Natural polymer and Synthetic.

Synthetic fibres
These are those in which man has performed the entire operation of fibre-production without allowing nature to manufacture the fibre-forming substance. Nylon, Terylene, and Orlon are fibres made by man from simple chemicals such as those derived from coal or oil. These chemicals have been made into materials capable of forming fibres, and these materials have then been manipulated into a fibrous form. Man has carried out the entire operation. Nature has had no hand in the production at all. They are truly synthetic fibres.

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