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Yarn And Basic Concepts Of Yarn Making

Yarn Making
Yarn: A yarn is a strand of natural or man-made fibers or filaments that have been twisted or grouped together for use of weaving, knitting, or other methods of constructing textile fabric. The type of yarn manufactured will depend on the fibers selected; the texture, or hand, of the fabric to be made; and qualities such as warmth, resiliency, softness, and durability required in the fabrics end uses.

Yarn making is generally the second step in the manufacture of textile fabrics. Raw fibers arrive at the yarn manufacturers in different forms. For example, cotton is in bales, wool in fleeces; cultivated raw silk in strands and waste and wild silk in bales; flax in bundles; rayon, acetate, nylon and the other manufactured fibers on tubes, cones, cops, spools or skeins. In general, fibers are blended or mixed before yarn manufacture actually begins. Cotton, wool, spun or waste silk, spun rayon, spun acetate, spun nylon and many of the noncellulosics are made into yarn by carding and combing with little or no spinning.

Carding; separates the fibers and puts them in a filmy sheet that is funneled into a soft mass called sliver. Sheets of fiber passed between rollers that are covered with fine wires that perform a brushing function.

Combing; is necessary when fine, uniform yarns are needed to give sheerness, luster, smoothness, and possibly durability.

Hackling; is the process by which flax is prepared for linen yarn. The purpose of hackling is to disentangle the flax fibers and to lay them parallel. Reeling and throwing: Raw silk is the long fiber silk that is reeled from the cocoon and twisted into yarn. Several yarns are combined and twisted onto bobbins. If ply yarns required, the strands are combined and twisted together. The combining and twisting is called throwing.

Spinning: The spinning operation draws out the roving (very slackly twisted sliver) and puts in the required amount of twist. The purpose of twist is to bind the fibers together and to holds in the ends of fiber. Generally speaking, the tighter twist, the stronger the yarn. This is true to a certain point; then the yarn weakens and may finally break.

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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibre are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.

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