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Textile Basics, Textile Fibers and Constructions

Clothing is one of the basic needs for humankind. It protects the body from heat and cold, but also brings out one’s personality, enhances beauty, gives comfort and expresses the status of living. Thus the need to study about fiber, fabric and clothing. 

What is Textile 
Textiles, generic term from Latin texere - which means capable of being woven, to weave originally applied to woven fabrics, but now also applied to natural and synthetic filaments, yarns, and threads as well as to the woven, knitted, nonwoven, felted, tufted, braided, bonded, knotted, and embroidered fabrics made from them. The term textile fibers refers to fibers that can be spun into yarn or made into fabric. 

What is a textile fiber 
Fibers are units of matter having length at least 100 times their diameter or width. In other words: Fibers are long and thin materials. 

What is a textile construction 
A textile construction is what holds fibres together in a textile. 
Different kinds of textile fibres 
- Natural fibers – long history, 
- Man-made fibers – since 1900. 
o Synthetic fibers – from polymers,
o Regenate fibers – e.g. from cellulose,

Properties of different kinds of textile fibers: 
Fibers              Moist absorbance   Abrasion resistance 
Cotton                  High                          High 
Wool                    High                         Medium 
Silk                      High                          Medium 
Polyester          Low (Very)                   High 
Viscose               High                          Medium 

Properties of different kinds of textile constructions 
Woven textiles » Stiff textile, 
- Knitted textiles » Elastic textile, 
- Non-woven textiles » Cheap textile, 

Fiber And Construction and Final Properties 
- There are no good or bad textile fibers or textile constructions. 
- It all depends on what the final textile is going to be used for. 
- Each textile fiber & construction has its place, consequences and cost. 

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