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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, A Letter - Textile Dictionary

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Letter A 

Aba: A Loose Cloak, Possibly Of Turkish-Arabian Origin. Related To The Jama In Men's Wear, And To The Abbo (q.v.) in Women's.

Abaca: Fibre Obtained From The Plant Musa Textiles, Commonly Known As Manila.

Abho: A Loose Shirt-like Garment, Worn By Women Mostly In Gujarat And Rajasthan. The Garment Was Generally Worn With Short, Wide Sleeves, Open At The Neck, Loose-fitting On The Upper Part And Really Flared In Its Skirt. Often Decorated With Embroidery And Mirror-glass Work.

Abrasion Mark: An area of localised wear characterised by the presence of excessive surface hairiness or denuded fibre and caused by chafing by, or by oblique impact with, a hard or rough surface.

Abrasion Resistance: The degree by which a fabric is able to withstand loss of appearance through surface wear, rubbing, chafing, and other frictional actions.

Abstract: Refers To A Design In The Abstract Style, I.e. One That Represents A General Form And Not An Accurate Representation Of A Subject.

Absorbency: The ability of a fabric to take in moisture. Absorbency is a very important property, which effects many other characteristics such as skin comfort, static build-up, shrinkage, stain removal, water repellency, and wrinkle recovery.

Accessories: Additional Ornamentation To Accompany The Garment In Order To Create A Certain Look/image. (shoes, Jewelries Etc.)

Accordion: 1x1 Rib Knit Alternating With A 2x2 Rib.

Acetate (fibre) (Generic Name): The Term Used To Describe Fibres Of Cellulose Ethanoate (acetate) Wherein Between 74% And 92% Of The Hydroxyl Groups Of The Original Cellulose Are Ethanoylated (acetylated). Purified Cellulose Is Ethanoylated (acetylated) By Ethanoic Anhydride (acetic Anhydride) In The Presence Of A Catalyst (such As Sulphuric Acid Or Perchloric Acid) In A Solvent Such As Dichloromethane (methylene Chloride) Or Ethanoic (acetic) Acid. The Reaction Proceeds Until Primary Cellulose Acetate Containing 60% Of Combined Ethanoic Acid Is Formed. Secondary Cellulose Acetate Is Formed From The Primary Acetate By Partial Hydrolysis. It Is Obtained By Adding Water In Excess Of That Required To React With The Residual Ethanoic Anhydride, Which Thus Allows The Hydrolysis To Take Place.

Acetate: A manufactured fiber formed by a compound of cellulose, refined from cotton linters and/or the wood pulp of the mulberry trees. This material is then combined with acedic acid and is extruded through a spinneret and then hardened.

Acetate Fibre: The generic name for cellulose acetate fibres in which less than 92% but at least 74% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated. NOTE: These fibres were formerly referred to as "diacetate".

Acetone-Soluble Cellulose Ethanoate (acetate): When The Hydrolysis Of Primary Cellulose Ethanoate (acetate) Is Allowed To Proceed Until Approximately 54% Of Combined Ethanoic (acetic) Acid Remains In The Product, The Cellulose Acetate Is Soluble In Propanone (acetone) And Is Sometimes Known As Acetone-soluble Cellulose Acetate.

Acetylation: The Process Of Introducing An Ethanoyl (acetyl) Radical Into An Organic Molecule.

Achkan: A Men's Long-sleeved Coat-like Garment, Worn Close To The Body, Reaching Down To The Knees Or Even Lower, And Buttoned In Front-middle.

Acid Dye: An Anionic Dye Characterized By Substantiality For Protein And Polyamide Fibres And Usually Applied From An Acidic Or Neutral Dye bath.

Acid Dye: An anionic dye characterised by its substantivity (q.v.) for protein fibres and polyamide fibres and usually applied from an acidic or neutral dyebath.

Acid Washed: A process that alters the color of indigo denim fabrics by treating them with chemicals.

Acrylic: A manufactured fiber derived from polyacrylonitrile. Its major properties include a soft, wool-like hand, machine washable and dryable, excellent color retention. Solution-dyed versions have excellent resistance to sunlight and chlorine degradation.
Acrylic Fibre: The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that consists of at least 85% (m/m) of acrylonitrile units or acrylonitrile copolymers. (See also polyacrylonitrile fibre).

Acrylic (fibre) (generic Name): A Term Used To Describe Fibres Composed Of Synthetic Linear Macromolecules Having In The Chain At Least 85% (by Mass) Of Recurring Cyanoethene (acrylonitrile) Groups.

Acrylic Coated: A Fabric Which Has Been Coated, Generally On The Back, With Acrylic Resin To Make It Waterproof Or Dawnproof.

Addition Polymerization: See Polymerization, Addition

Affinity: The Quantitative Expression Of Substantiality. It Is The Difference Between The Chemical Potential Of The Dye In Its Standard State In The Fibre And The Corresponding Chemical Potential In The Dye bath.

Aguillettes: Metal-tagged Laces That Replaced The Sewn Ones, To Attach The Breeches To The Doublet.

Ahimsa silk: An alternative, non-harmful method of producing silk. Silk is woven by making use of empty cocoons rather than harvesting live moth pupae. Cultivated on forest trees, the silk is spun after the silkworm metamorphoses into a moth and flies away leaving its cocoon. This type of silk derives its name from the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain doctrine of peace and non-violence.

Air-Jet Loom: A loom in which the weft yarn is propelled through the shed by means of a jet of air.

Air Laying: A Method Of Forming A Web (or Batt) Of Staple Fibres In Which The Fibres Are Dispersed Into An Air Stream And Condensed From The Air Stream On To A Permeable Cage Or Conveyor.

Air Permeability: The porosity of a fabric as estimated by the ease with which air passes through it. Air permeability measures the warmth of blankets, the air resistance of parachute cloth, the wind resistance of sailcloth, etc. as measured on standard testing equipment.

Albatross: A Lightweight, Plain Weave Fabric Traditionally Of Wool Or Wool Blends With A Napped, Fleecy Surface. So Named Because The Texture Resembles The Breast Of An Albatross. Usually Light In Color- Used In Infant's Wear, Sleep Wear.

Alencon Lace: A Needlepoint Lace On A Fine Net Ground Characterized By A Heavy Thread (cordonnet) Outlining The Design. Usually Machine Made But Sometimes The Cordonnet Is Inserted By Hand.

Algaecide: Kills algae.

Alginate (fibre) (generic Name): A Term Used To Describe Fibres Composed Of Metallic Salts Of Alginic Acid.

Alkali-cellulose: The Product Of The Interaction Of Strong Sodium Hydroxide With Purified Cellulose.note: In The Manufacture Of Viscose Fibres, The Cellulose May Be Cotton Linters Or Wood-pulp. After Pressing, Alkali-cellulose Usually Contains Approximately 30% Of Cellulose And 15% Of Sodium Hydroxide, The Remainder Being Water. During The Steeping Of The Cellulose In Sodium Hydroxide (18-20% W/w) To Form The Alkali-cellulose, Soluble Impurities, Including Soluble Cellulose Are Removed.

Alligator Skin: A Design, Printed Or Embossed, That Suggests The Characteristic Texture Of An Alligator.

Allonge-perruqe: French Term For Periwig, Also Called State-wig. Worn By Fashionable Men In The Late 17th, Early 18th Century, Introduced Probably By Louis Xiv And Usually In Black Or Dark Brown Shades. The Periwig Had Very High "horns" On Top Of The Forehead And Was Extremely Long, Curled And Flowing Down The Back And Over The Shoulders.

Allover Lace: General Term For A Wide Lace In Which The Pattern Covers The Full Width Of The Fabric. It Is Generally Sold And Cut In The Same Way As Non Lace Fabrics.

All-Over Print: A fabric that has a printed pattern that covers practically the whole face of the fabric.

Alpaca: A natural hair fiber obtained from the Alpaca sheep, a domesticated member of the llama family. The fiber is most commonly used in fabrics for dresses, suits, coats, and sweaters.

Alpaca Fibre (hair): Fibre From The Fleece Of The Alpaca (lama Pacos) Which Inhabits The High Mountain Region Of South America.

Alter: To Change The Pattern So That It Corresponds To Body Measurements.

Amadis Sleeve: Tight-fitting Sleeve Continuing On The Back Of The Hand, Invented In 1684 By Mlle Le Rochois, An Actress At The Opera, Who Had Unsightly Arms.

Anaphe: A Wild Silk From The Larvae Of The Anaphe Moth.

Angarakfia: A Long, Full-sleeved Outerwear For Men; Literally 'that Which Protects Or Covers The Limbs'. Closely Related To The Jama (q.v.), But Possibly Of Native, Indian Origin. Generally Open At The Chest And Tied In Front, With An Inner Flap Or Parda Covering The Chest. Full-skirted And Of Varying Lengths.

Angiaiangika: Short, Tight-fitting Bodice Worn By Women In India From Very Early Times. Literally, 'Covering For The Body'.

Angora: The Hair Of The Angora Rabbit. It Is Believed To Come From Ankara-Turkey (Ankara=Angora), Developed From A Mutation In A Wild Rabbit, In The 18th Century. Note: The Hair Of The Angora Goat Is Referred To As Mohair.

Angora: The hair of the Angora goat. Also known as Angora mohair. Angora may also apply to the fur of the Angora rabbit. However, according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, any apparel containing Angora rabbit hair must be labeled as "Angora rabbit hair" on the garment.

Anidex (fibre): A Term Used To Describe Fibres Made From A Synthetic Linear Polymer That Consists Of At Least 50% By Mass Of One Or More Esters Of A Monohydric Alcohol And Propenoic Acid (acrylic Acid).
Animal Fibers: The term used to distinguish natural fibers obtained from animals. It includes alpaca, angora, goat hair, camel hair, cashmere, cow hair, fur, guanaco, hog hair, huarizo, llama, mohair, misti, Persian cashmere, rabbit hair, silk, sun, vicuna, worsted, worsted lop.

Animal Skin: Refers To A Design Which Suggests The Skin Of An Animal. Leopard, Tiger, Zebra And Giraffe Are Popular Motifs. 

Anionic Dye: A Dye That Dissociates In Aqueous Solution To Give A Negatively Charged Ion.

Antheraea Spp.:See Tussah Silk. See Also Fibre Types.

Anti Bacterial: Finish That Makes A Fabric Resistant To The Growth Of Bacteria.

Anti-Bacterial (Anti-Microbial): A fabric that has been chemically treated or a fiber that is created by incorporating the anti-bacterial chemical agent into the fiber formula, making the finished fiber or fabric resistant to, or inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms.

Antifungal: Inhibits or kills fungi.

Anti Pill: A Finish Applied To Fleece Which Involves Shearing The Surface So That The Fabric Is Less Likely To Pill.

Anti-Static: Can be either a fiber or fabric that does not allow the build-up of static electricity to occur when the fiber or fabric experiences friction or rubbing.

Antique Satin: A Reversible Fabric - One Side Looks Like Satin And The Other Side Like Shantung. It Often Has A Dark Warp Which Enhances The Texture. Often Used For Draperies.

Antique Taffeta: A Stiff Plain Weave Fabric, Often Iridescent, With A Slubbed Weft. May Be Of Silk Or Synthetics.

Antron: Brand Of Nylon Fiber Trademarked By The Du Pont Co.

Apparent Wall Thickness: The Apparent Width Of A Fibre Wall As Seen Under The Microscope. In The Maturity Test For Cotton, The Apparent Wall Thickness Is Assessed Visually At The Widest Part Of The Fibres As A Fraction Of The Maximum Ribbon Width.

Aramid (fibre) (generic Name): A Term Used To Describe Fibres Composed Of Synthetic Linear Macromolecules Having In The Chain Recurring Amide Groups, At Least 85% Of Which Are Joined Directly By Two Aromatic Rings And In Which Amide Groups May Be Substituted For Up To 50% Of The Amide Groups.

Aramid: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain of synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Aramid fabrics are very strong and are resistant to high temperatures and extreme external forces. Aramid fabrics are used in thermally protective clothing; (i.e. coveralls, jackets, gloves, shirts, pants). U.S. FTC Definition: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in that is at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.

Aramid Fibre: The generic name for fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules that have in the chain recurring amide groups, at least 85% of which are joined directly to two aromatic rings and in which imide groups may be substituted for up to 50% of the amide groups.

Argentan Lace: A Needlepoint Lace On A Net Ground Similar To Alencon Lace But On A Larger Net And Without The Cordonnet Outline Thread Of Alencon.

Argyle: A Design Of Various Colored Diamond Shaped Blocks On A Single Colored Ground, Usually Crossed By Lines In A Diamond Shape. Popular In Sweaters And Hosiery.

Art/embroidery Linen: A Balanced Plain Weave Fabric Usually Of Linen Or Linen/cotton. It Is Made From Smooth Round Yarns (not Flattened By Calendering). Used As A Base For Embroidered Table Linen, Pillowcases, Also In Drapes, Slipcovers And Some Apparel. Also Called Embroidery Crash.

Asbestos: A Generic Name Used To Describe A Family Of Naturally Occurring Fibrous Hydrated Silicates Divided On The Basis Of Mineralogical Features Into Serpentines And Amphiboles. Six Varieties Were Of Commercial Importance: Serpentine: Chrysotile Mg3 (si2o5) (oh)4, Amphiboles: Actinolite Ca2 (mgfe)5 (si6o22) (oh)2, Asbestos Grunerite ( Amosite) (femg)7 (si6o22) (oh)2, Anthhophyllite (mgfe)7 (si6o22)(oh)2, Crocidolite Na2fe2+3fe3+2(si6o22)(oh)2, Tremolite Ca2mg5(si6o22)(oh)2, the Six Varieties Are Deemed To Be Asbestos Only When They Have A Fibrous Form. Note: Asbestos Is No Longer Used Because Of The Associated Health Risks.

Asharfi Buti: A Popular Textile Design Consisting Of Small Floral Discs Or Circles, Sometimes With Small Patterns Within The Circle. 

Astrakhan: A Thick Woven Or Knitted Cloth Often Of Wool With A Surface Of Loops Or Curls, Imitating The Coat Of An Astrakhan Lamb. Also Called Poodle Cloth. Used For Coats And Trimming. 

Atactic Polymer: A Linear Polymer Containing Asymmetrically-substituted Carbon Atoms In The Repeating Unit Of The Main Chain, A Planar Projection Of Whose Structure Has The Same Substituents Situated Randomly To Any One Side Or The Other Of The Main Chain. 

Atansaw: A Wide, Commodious Chogha (q.v.)like Garment For Wrapping Around The Body. 

Atlas: A Warp Knit Fabric In Which A Set Of Yarns Shifts Diagonally One Wale Per Course For Several Courses, Then Returns To The Original Position. 

Atmosphere For Testing: (a) Standard Temperate Atmosphere: An Atmosphere At The Prevailing Barometric Pressure With A Relative Humidity Of 65% And A Temperature Of 20 C, (b) Standard Tropical Atmosphere: An Atmosphere At The Prevailing Barometric Pressure With A Relative Humidity Of 65% And A Temperature Of 27 C. 

Awning Stripe: 1. A Design Of Wide Even Stripes. 2. A Heavy Canvas Fabric With This Design. May Be Yarn Dyed Or Printed. 

Azlon (fibre) (USA): A Term Used To Describe Manufactured Fibres In Which The Fibre-forming Substance Is Composed Of Any Regenerated Naturally Occurring Protein. The Iso Generic Name Is Protein. 

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