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Burn Test Fabric Identification

Fabric Burn Test 
Fabric Identification
Burn Test, This should only be done by skilled burners. Make sure there is a bucket of water nearby and that you burn in a metal bucket or non-plastic sink. To identify fabric that is unknown, a simple burn test can be done to determine if the fabric is a natural fiber, man made fiber, or a blend of natural and man made fibers. The burn test is used by many fabric stores and designers and takes practice to determine the exact fiber content. However, an inexperienced person can still determine the difference between many fibers to "narrow" the choices down to natural or man made fibers. This elimination process will give information necessary to decide the care of the fabric.

All fibers will burn. Asbestos treated fibers are, for the most part fire proof. The burning test should be done with caution. Use a small piece of fabric only. Hold the fabric with tweezers, not your fingers. Burn over a metal dish with soda in the bottom or even water in the bottom of the dish. Some fabrics will ignite and melt. The result is burning drips which can adhere to fabric or skin and cause a serious burn.
Cotton is a plant fiber. When ignited it burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. The ash left is easily crumbled. Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as you would a candle.
Linen is also a plant fiber but different from cotton in that the individual plant fibers which make up the yarn are long where cotton fibers are short. Linen takes longer to ignite. The fabric closest to the ash is very brittle. Linen is easily extinguished by blowing on it as you would a candle.
Silk is a protein fiber and usually burns readily, not necessarily with a steady flame, and smells like burning hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are not as easily extinguished as cotton or linen.
Wool is also a protein fiber but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual "hair" fibers are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser than with silk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell of burning wool is like burning hair.

Man Made Fibers
Acetate is made from cellulose (wood fibers), technically cellulose acetate. Acetate burns readily with a flickering flame that cannot be easily extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and leaves a hard ash. The smell is similar to burning wood chips.
Acrylic technically acrylonitrile is made from natural gas and petroleum. Acrylics burn readily due to the fiber content and the lofty, air filled pockets. A match or cigarette dropped on an acrylic blanket can ignite the fabric which will burn rapidly unless extinguished. The ash is hard. The smell is acrid or harsh.
Nylon is a polyamide made from petroleum. Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fiber. If you can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.
Polyester is a polymer produced from coal, air, water, and petroleum products. Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash can bond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester is black with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard.
Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burns rapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves.
Blends consist of two or more fibers and, ideally, are supposed to take on the characteristics of each fiber in the blend. The burning test can be used but the fabric content will be an assumption.

How Burns**
How Burns
Odor
Ash/Bead
Fiber
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Chars
Burning Paper or Leaves
Soft, Lacey & Gray Ash
Linen, 
Juts, 
Hemp
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Chars - Yellow to Orange Steady Flame - Slow Burning Ember
Burning Paper or Leaves
Soft, Lacey & Gray Ash - Easily Crushed
Cotton, 
Ramie
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Chars - Fast Orange Flame - Ember Will Glow After Flame Removed
Burning Paper or Leaves
Soft, Lacey & Gray Ash - Almost No Ash
Rayon
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Chars - Yellow to Orange Steady Flame
Burning Paper or Leaves
Soft, Lacey & Black Ash
Linen
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Melts (Sizzles) - Flickery Flame - Will Burn After Flames Is Removed
Vinegar or Burning Wood Chips
Drips and Leaves Hard, Black, Bead
Acetate, 
Triacetate
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Melts, White-Orange Tip, No Smoke
Burning Meat
Hard, Black, Irregular Bead
Acrylic (Acrylonitrile)
Burns & Non Self-Extinguishing
Burns & Melts
Tumeric
Soft, Black, Irregular Bead
Acrylic
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Chars
Burning Hair or Feathers
Soft, Gray Bead, Easily Turns to Powder When Crushed
Silk
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Chars - Orange Flame - No Smoke
Burning Hair or Feathers
Dark, Irregular Ash, Turns to Powder When Crushed
Wool, 
Cashmere, 
Mohair, 
Alpaca, etc.
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Melts - Blue Base & Orange Tip, No Smoke
Burning Celery, Burning Plastic
Hard, Gray or Brown Bead
Nylon
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Melts
Burning Asphalt
Hard, Tan Bead
Olefin
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Melts
Sharp, Acid Chemical
Hard, Black, Irregular Bead
Modacrylic
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Melts
Sweet, Fruity Chemical
Hard, Black, Irregular Bead
Vinyon
Burns & Self-Extinguishing
Burns Briefly & Melts - Orange, Sputtery Flame - Black Smoke
Sweet, Fruity Chemical
Drips and Leaves Hard, Black, Round Bead
Polyester
Will Not Burn



Fiberglass, 
 Asbestos, 
Metal

8 yorum:

the chart's rigth side doesnt appear, could you fix the all marjins

Burn test is the most accepted method for identifying the true nature of any fabric. This test is carried out to know whether a fabric is made up of a natural fiber, man made fiber, or a blend of natural and man made fibers.

To identify the fibers in an unknown piece of fabric, a snippet should be cut off from it. This specimen should be about 1" long and a triangle at most 1/4" wide. The snippet of fabric should be held in a pair of tweezers over the dish (which has already been made fireproof). With either a match or cigarette lighter, the snippet should be put directly into the flame long enough for it to catch on fire.

some fabrics have chemical finishes and sizings applied to them that will change the way they burn, making the burn test further unreliable.

This test is carried out to know whether a fabric is made up of a natural fiber, man made fiber, or a blend of natural and man made fibers.

I have used the burn test for quite some time now. It may not always tell exactly what fabric you have, but it will tell you if it is a natural or synthetic fiber, and that may be all you need to know. A mixed fabric can be tricky, but if you see ash and melt, then you know it is a mix of natural and synthetic

The Burn Test to Identify Textile Fibers
The burn test is a simple, somewhat subjective test based on the knowledge of how particular fibers burn. Be prepared to note the following when testing your fibers:
Do the fibers melt and/or burn ?
Do the fibers shrink from the flame ?
What type of odor do the fumes have ?
What is the characteristic(s) of any smoke ?
What does the residue of the burned fibers look like ?

Natural, Organic & Manmade Fibers
In general, if the ash is soft and the odor is of burning hair or paper, the fabric is a natural fiber. Cellulosic fibers (cotton, linen and rayon) burn rapidly with a yellow flame. When the flame is removed, there is an afterglow, then soft gray ash.

Synthetic Fibers
Most synthetic fibers both burn and melt, and also tend to shrink away from the flame. Synthetics burn with an acrid, chemical or vinegar-like odor and leave a plastic bead.

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