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Letter W - Textile Dictionary

Letter W

W

Wadding: A loosely cohering sheet of fibres used for padding, upholstery, stuffing, packing, or similar purposes.

Waffle: A fabric characterized by a honeycomb texture or small squares similar to the surface of a waffle. May be woven or knit.

Waistcoat: From the louis xvi period onwards waistcoats were worn under all men's outer garments, coat, riding-coat, frock coat, jacket, etc. Usually the two front panels were made from fine material and the back, which isn't seen, from lining material.

Wale (knitting): A column of loops along the length of a fabric.

Wales: In a knitted fabric, the series of loops that are formed by a single needle, which runs vertically or lengthwise in a knitted fabric.

Wall thickness, apparent: The apparent width of a fibre wall as seen when fibres are examined under a microscope. Note: in the cotton fibre maturity test, the apparent wall thickness assessed visually at the widest part of the fibres as a fraction of the maximum ribbon width.

Warm: A woolly or fibrous hand generally associated with fabrics that keep the body warm.

Warmth To Weight Ratio: A measurement used to evaluate the effectiveness of an insulated product in relation to weather conditions and the environment. The insulation with the best rating is down. Down provides the best warmth to weight ratio over almost any other insulation material, which is why you will see down garments and sleeping bags as the primary choice for use in almost every high altitude, cold weather expedition.

Warm Colours: Colors like red, orange, yellow are classified as warm colors, they are advancing in nature, because as seen by the eyes these colors move closer thereby reducing the size of an object. Warm colors are cheerful.

Warp: Used as a verb - to arrange threads in long lengths parallel to one another preparatory to further processing. Note: in addition to beaming the following methods of warping are practised; ball warping, cross-ball warping, and chain warping. The primary stage of these methods of warping is withdrawal of ends from a warping creel and their assembly in rope form, a form that may conveniently be used for wet processing. For convenience of handling, this rope may be (a) wound into a ball (ball warping), (b) machine-wound on to a wooden roller into a cross-ball cheese (cross-ball or cheese warping), or (c) shortened into a link chain (chain warping). A number of these ropes may be assembled into a complete warp on a beam or may be split and dressed and incorporated in warps made by other methods.

Warp (uk, local, chain): Used as a noun - (1) threads lengthways in a fabric as woven. (2) a number of threads in long lengths and approximately parallel, in various forms intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing, or lacemaking.

Warp: In all woven fabrics, this is the set of yarn running lengthwise - machine direction - parallel to the selvage and interwoven with the filling. It is the set of yarns wound together on a beam for the purpose of weaving or warp knitting.

Warp (n): a) Threads lengthways in a fabric as woven.
b) a number of threads in long lengths and approximately parallel, which may be in various forms intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing or lace-making.

Warp (v): To arrange threads in long lengths parallel to one another preparatory to further processing.
Note: in addition to beaming, the following methods of warping are practised: ball warping, cross-ball warping and chain warping. The primary stage of these methods of warping is the withdrawal of the ends from a warping creel and their assembly in rope form, a form that may conveniently be used for wet processing. For convenience of handling, this rope may be:
A) wound into a ball (ball warping);
B) machine-wound onto a wooden roller into a cross-ball cheese (cross-ball or cheese-ball warping);
C) shortened into a link chain (chain warping).
A number of these ropes may be assembled into a complete warp on a beam in a dressing frame, or may be split and dressed and incorporated in warps made by other methods. (see also section warping).

Warp Bow: Deviation of the warp yarn from a straight line; alternatively, curvature of the warp yarns.

Warp dressing: The operation of assembling on a beam yarns from a ball warp, beam warp, or chain warp immediately prior to weaving.

Warp Knit: A fabric produced by interlocking loops in a lengthwise direction . Warp knits tend to be flatter, smoother, more run resistant, and more stable than weft knits . Examples are tricot, raschel and milanese.

Warp Knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means in which the loops made from each warp thread are formed substantially along the length of the fabric. It is characterized by the fact that each warp thread is fed more or less in line with the direction in which the fabric is produced.

Warp Knitting: A type of knitted fabric construction in which the yarns are formed into stitches in a lengthwise manner. There are two basic types: weft knits and warp knits. Warp knits are knitted with intermeshing loops disposed in a lengthwise or warp direction, while weft knits have their loops intermeshed in a width-wise or weft direction. Warp knits are generally less elastic than weft knits. Common examples of warp knits are tricot knits and raschel knits.

Warp print: The warp yarns are printed with a design before weaving. After weaving the design then has a hazy shadowy effect.

Washed: Refers to fabrics that have been laundered before shipping. This may be done to reduce shrinkage, soften the hand, wash down the color or to give the fabric a used, laundered look.

Washer: A machine for removing impurities, excess dyes or chemicals by submitting fabric or yarn, in rope or open-width form, to successive liquid treatments,

Washing-off: Treatment of textile material in water or detergent solution to remove substances employed previous processes.

Washing Liquor: An aqueous detergent solution used for the physical removal of extraneous substances from textile materials.

Waste (cotton, wool and other staple fibres): There are two classes of waste known as 'hard' and 'soft', and their treatment differs according to the class. Hard waste is essentially that from spinning frames, reeling and winding machines and all other waste of a thready nature. Soft waste comes from earlier processes where the fibres are relatively little twisted, felted, or compacted.

Water Repellent: Fabrics that have been treated to resist wetting and shed water by causing the water to bead on the surface. It does not close the pores of the fabric as waterproof treatments do, so the fabrics are comfortable to wear. It will offer protection in a light shower but not heavy rain. Water repellency may be added by treating the fabric with fluorocarbon chemicals , wax, silicone or resins . Sometimes called water resistant.

Watercolor: Refers to designs that are characterized by soft gradations and soft shadings of color suggestive of semi-opaque watercolor paintings.

Watering: An operation used in grass bleaching that consists of spraying fabrics laid on a green with water.

Waterproof: The ability of fabric to be fully resistant to penetration by water. Note: the term is an absolute one and implies that the water penetration resistance of the fabric is equivalent to its hydraulic bursting strength.

Waterproof: Refers to fabrics that have been coated, laminated, or otherwise treated to prevent the penetration of water.

Water-repellent: A state characterized by the non-spreading of a globule of water on a textile material.

Water Repellent: Fabrics that have been treated with a finish which cause them to shed water and resist water penetration, but are still air-permeable. Treatments can include wax coatings, resins, silicones, and fluorine derivatives. Such treatments do not close the pours of the fabric, while waterproof finishes do.

Water-Repellent: A type of finish applied to a textile fabric and that prevents the spreading of globules of water over its surface. Note: the term is normally not applied to a water-repellent finish that is impervious to air; this is generally referred to as "waterproof".

Water Resistant: Fabric treated chemically to resist water or given a "wax- coating treatment" to make it repellent. A degree by which water is able to penetrate a fabric. Not to be confused with water-repellent. However, the terms are often used interchangeably.

Water-based products and finishes: An environmentally-friendly alternative. These products and finishes are nonflammable and odorless. They offer reduced exposure to toxic materials and help reduce environmental pollution. Water-based products are easy to clean and dry faster than other non-water-based products.

Waterproof: A term applied to fabrics whose pores have been closed, and therefore, will not allow water or air to pass through them.

Watteau Pleat: Box pleat sweeping down from the shoulders to the hem in the loose back of the gown.

Wax Coated: Refers to fabric that has been coated with wax or paraffin to alter the hand or appearance or to make the fabric water repellent.

Waxing, Warp: The application of wax to a warp sheet so as to improve its weaving performance. The wax, in emulsion or molten form, is usually applied by a trough and lick roller. The point of application may be between the swift and warp beam in section warping , or between the creel and beaming head in beam warping or immediately after drying in slasher sizing. Normally waxes must be readily removable in the subsequent finishing operation. Note: alternatively wax is sometimes applied to a warp by means of a wax rod placed in the nip between the warp sheet and the weaver's beam at the point where the yarn leaves the latter.
Weathering: The action of atmospheric agencies or elements on substances exposed to them.
B) the discoloration, disintergration, etc., that results from this action.

Weathering: The action of atmospheric agencies or elements on substances exposed to them. (2) the discoloration, disintegration, etc., That results from this action.

Weave: The pattern of interlacing of warp and weft in a woven fabric.

Weave (n): The pattern of the interlacing of warp and weft in a woven fabric (q.v.).

Weave (v): To form a fabric by the interlacing of warp and weft.

Weaving: The process of forming a fabric on a loom by interlacing the warp (lengthwise yarns) and the filling (crosswise yarns) perpendicular to each other. Filling is fed into the goods from cones, filling bobbins or quills, which carry the filling yarns through the shed of the loom. Filling may also be inserted into the material without the use of a shuttle, as in the case of a shuttleless loom. The three basic weaves are plain, twill, and satin. All other weaves, no matter how intricate, employ one or more of these basic weaves in their composition. Variations on the basic weaves make a variety of different fabric surfaces and fabric strengths.

Web: A rarely used synonym for fabric. (2) the sheet of fibres delivered by a card (card web) (3) a plain circular-knitted fabric. (4) a local and little-used synonym for warp. (5) (nonwoven) single or multiple sheets of fibre used in nonwoven fabric production. Also termed batt.

Webbing: A woven narrow fabric, the prime function of which is load bearing. It is generally of a coarse weave and has multiple plies. It is produced in widths up to and including 450 mm and includes all elastic narrow fabrics.

Weepers: White bands which were worn on the sleeve facings of coats and jerkins in the 17th and 18th centuries as a sign of deep mourning.

Weft: Threads widthways in a fabric as woven. (2) yarn intended for use as in (1).

Weft: in woven fabric, the filling yarns that run perpendicular to the warp yarns

Weft: a) width-way threads as woven in a fabric.
B) yarn intended for use as in (a) above.

Weft bobbin: See pirn.

Weft carrier: A yarn carrier providing a supply of weft and driven positively through a shed in a weaving machine.

Weft Knit: The most common type of knit formed by interlocking loops in the widthwise direction . Weft knit tend to have more stretch than warp knits. Examples are interlock, jerseys, double knits, rib knits.

Weft Knit: A type of knitted fabric in which yarns are formed into stitches in widthwise manner. Common examples of weft knits are circular knits and flat knits.

Weft knitting: A method of making a fabric by normal knitting means in which the loops made by each weft thread are formed substantially across the width of the fabric. It is characterized by the fact that each weft thread is fed more or less at right angles to the direction in which the fabric is produced.

Weighting: The addition of metallic salts to silks to increase the mass and impart a firmer handle.

Weight of Cloth: There are three ways by which fabric is sold. 1. Ounces per linear yard: A 14-ounce covert topcoating, a 22-ounce melton overcoating. 2. Yards to the pound: A 3.60 airplane cloth, a 4.00 filling sateen. 3. Ounces per square yard: A 3.75 acetate satin, a 6.00 nylon organdy.

Welded Shell: The outer layer of a bonded wor welded garment, such as a jacket.

Welding: There are two basic methods for applying bonding or welded seams. The first method uses an adhesive film, and the application of heat to glue or laminate two substrates together. The second method involves gluing or attaching two fabrics, using ultrasonic technology. The creation and channeling of high frequency vibratory waves cause a rapid buildup of heat in synthetic fabrics to create the bonding.

Wet cleaning: The removal of water-soluble or emulsifiable soil from garments, often carried out on a draining board using tepid water in the presence of detergents. It is also a process for cleaning garments etc., Made from fabrics, e.g. Vinyi coated materials, liable to be damaged by dry cleaning solvents.

Wet fixation: A finishing process for cellulosic-fibre fabrics that improves the wet crease recovery and smooth drying properties, but not the dry crease recovery.

Wet laying: The process of forming a fibre sheet by papermaking techniques, for nonwoven fabric production.

Wet spinning (man-made-fibre production): Conversion of a dissolved polymer into filaments by extrusion into a coagulating liquid. Note: the extrusion may be directly into the coagulating liquid or through a small air-gap. In the latter case it may be known as dry-jet wet spinning or air-gap wet spinning.

Wet-laid: Formation of a non-woven fabric by suspending fibers in water to disperse them evenly . The suspension is poured onto a moving screen allowing the water to pass through and leaving a fiber web, which is then dried to form the fabric.

Wet-spun: Descriptive of a yarn of flax, hemp, or similar fibre spun from roving that has been thoroughly wetted out in hot water immediately prior to the drafting operation. (2) descriptive of man-made filament produced by wet spinning.

Whipcord: A strong, firm fabric with a prominent, steep, indented twill line. Used for trousers, drapery, upholstery.

Whipcord: A woven fabric with a very steep and compacted twill appearance on the face of the goods. End-uses for the fabric include dress woolens, worsteds, or wool blends, and many types of uniforms.

White goods: A very broad term which implies any goods bleached and finished in the white condition. Some of the cotton white goods are muslin, cambric, dimity, lawn, longcloth, organdy, voile, etc.

White-on-white: Some fabrics, such as men's shirtings or broadcloth, poplin, madras, etc., are made on a dobby or jacquard loom so the white motifs will appear on a white background.

Wick: A woven or a braided narrow fabric or a yarn or a group of yarns that has/have particularly good capillary properties.

Wickability: The ability of a fiber or a fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through to the surface of the fabric, so that evaporation can take place.

Wicking: Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a material.
Width, fabric: Unless otherwise specified, the distance from edge to edge of a fabric when laid flat on a table without tension. In the case of commercial dispute the measurement should be made after the fabric has been conditioned in a standard atmosphere for testing . When buying and selling fabric it is normal to specify the basis on which the width is to be assessed e.g., Overall, within limits, or usable width (which implies within stenter pin marks).

Wigwan: A converted cotton cloth, dyed black, brown or gray, and given a firm starched, plain calender finish, and used for interlinings in men's and boys's clothing to give body to the garment.

Wild silk: Fibres extruded by insect larvae other than bombyx mori.

Wildness: A ruffled appearance of the surface fibres in slivers, slubbings, rovings, and yams. Note: wildness may be due to the processing of these products under dry atmospheric conditions which causes increased inter-fibre friction and static-electricity troubles. The static charges cause mutual fibre repulsion and prevent fibres from taking up normal orderly positions in the respective products.

Willey (uk, local, willow, teaze): To open and disentangle fibres prior to scouring and/or carding.

Willey; tenterhook willow; fearnought; teazer, cockspur willey: A machine consisting of bladed or pinned rollers for opening, cleaning and mixing staple fibre material as a preliminary to scouring (for greasy wool) or carding (for most animal and synthetic fibres).

Winch; wince: A dyeing machine in which one or more endless lengths of fabric are drawn through the dyebath by a rotating reel or drum above the surface of the dye liquor.

Wind ratio: The number of wraps wound on a take-up package while the traverse completes a full stroke in one direction.

Wind resistant: The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, but it is not totally windproof.

Windproof: the ability of a fabric to be nonpermeable to wind and air.

Winder: A machine used for transferring yam from one package to another.

Windowpane: A design that looks like a windowpane, with narrow bands of one color forming an over-check that encloses rectangles of another ground color.

Woof: Comes from the anglo-saxon "owef". It is another name for the warp or warp yarn. Sometimes in advertising textiles, the word has been used to imply filling yarn, and made to interchange with the other term, weft.

Wool: Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. However, the term "wool" can also apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the cashmere or angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna. Commonly used in slacks and outerwear.

Wool: The fibrous covering of a sheep (see note under hair).

Wool classing: See classing.

Wool Sorting: A process by which fleece or skin wool is divided up into various qualities. It is usually carried out by the user.

Wool Waste: There are two classes of waste known as 'hard' and 'soft', and their treatment differs according to the class. Hard waste is essentially that from spinning frames, reeling and winding machines and all other waste of a thready nature. Soft waste comes from earlier processes where the fibres are relatively little twisted, felted, or compacted.

Woolen: Refers to fabrics of carded wool yarns spun in the woolen spinning system . These are shorter coarser yarns than worsted yarns and the fabrics are heavier than worsteds.

Woollen: Descriptive of yarns, or fabrics or garments made from yarns, which have been produced on the condenser system, wholly from wool fibres, new or otherwise. Note 1: as an adjective appertaining to wool generally, the term 'wool' and not 'woollen' is recommended. Note 2: the trade name 'woollen-spun' is applied to staple yarn produced by carding, condensing, and spinning on machinery originally designed for the processing of wool into yarn: it is descriptive of the processing technique and not fibre content. Since the yarn may not contain any wool fibre, the alternative condenser spun is preferable.

Woollen, Blended: Descriptive of yarns spun on the condenser system and having wool as the main component, or descriptive of fabrics or garments made from such yarns.

Woollen-spun: The trade name 'woollen-spun' is applied to staple yarn produced by carding, condensing, and spinning on machinery originally designed for the processing of wool into yarn: it is descriptive of the processing technique and not fibre content. Since the yarn may not contain any wool fibre, the alternative condenser spun is preferable.

Woollen-type fabric: A fabric manufactured wholly from woollen-type (woollen-spun ) yarns, or from cotton warp and woollen-type (woollen-spun) weft and which may or may not contain decorative threads of other fibres.

Wool-like: Refers to a non-wool fabric with a warm hand that feels like natural wool.

Worsted: Descriptive of yams spun wholly from combed wool in which the fibres are reasonably parallel, and fabrics or garments made from such yarns. In most countries fabrics with a small proportion of non-wool decorative threads can be described as worsted.

Worsted: Refers to fabric of combed yarns spun in the worsted spinning system. These tend to be longer finer yarns than those spun in the woolen system. The term worsted usually refers to wool but may refer to any other fibers as well. Worsted fabrics are lighter and smoother than woolens. Tropical, gabardine and serge are examples of worsted fabrics.

Worsted Fabric: A fabric manufactured wholly from worsted yams, except that decorative threads of other fibres may be present.

Worsted Fabric: A tightly woven fabric made by using only long staple, combed wool or wool-blend yarns. Worsted yarn is smooth- surfaced and spun from evenly combed, long staple fibers. The fabric has a hard, smooth surface. Gabardine and surge are examples of worsted fabrics. A common end use is men's tailored suits.

Worsted System: The textile process of manufacturing spun yarns from staple fibers usually over 3 inches in length. The main operations are carding, combing, drafting, and spinning.

Worsted yarns, colour terms: In all the definitions given below, the expression 'colour' includes black and white.

Worsted, blended: Descriptive of yarns in which the fibres are reasonably parallel and have combed wool as the main component, or descriptive of fabrics or garments made from such yarns.

Worsted-type fabric: A fabric manufactured wholly from worsted-type (worsted-spun) yarns, or from cotton warp and worsted-type (worsted-spun) weft, and which may or may not contain decorative threads of other fibres.

Wound Packages (yarns): Yarn wound on formers which facilitate convenient handling. Note: in some cases the former may be withdrawn before further processing.

Woven Fabric: A fabric produced by interlacing warp and weft.

Woven Fabric: Fabrics composed of two sets of yarns. One set of yarns, the warp, runs along the length of the fabric. The other set of yarns, the fill or weft, is perpendicular to the warp. Woven fabrics are held together by weaving the warp and the fill yarns over and under each other.

Wrap Yarn: A fibrous yarn covered with other yarn(s) to bind projecting fibre ends to the main body. Note: it is commonly used for interlinings to prevent fibre ends from penetrating the outer fabric.

Wrapper Fibres: Fibres which wrap around the main body of a staple fibre yarn during yarn formation in the production of open-end and fasciated yarns

Wrap-Spun Yarn: A yarn with a twistless core wrapped with a binder.

Wrinkle : An unwanted short and irregular crease in a fabric. Note: the distinction between a wrinkle and a crease is often not clear but creases are generally sharper and longer than wrinkles.

Wrinkle Free: A resistant to wrinkling created through the use of a variety of finishes and treatments.

Wrinkle Recovery: Similar to resiliency. It is the ability of a fabric to bounce back after it has been twisted, wrinkled, or distorted in any way. Some fabrics are able to eliminate wrinkles because of their own resilience. Wool is among those, as are thermo- plastic manufactured fibers and chemically-treated cottons. Laboratory tests are made to determine the amount or degree a fabric will recover from wrinkling.

Wrinkle Resistance (u.s.a.): See crease resistance.

Wrinkle Resistant: A fabric that has been treated to resist the formation of wrinkles.

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