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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, V - Textile Dictionary

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Letter V 

Vajani: A kind of pyjama (q.v.), Worn in kutch and saurashtra, often richly embroidered.

Valenciennes Lace: A flat bobbin lace with the same fine threads used for both the ground and the design.

Variable Cut Device: An ancillary device on the crush-cutting type of converter (see converting) which cyclically varies the angle of approach of the tow to the cutting region in order to introduce a controlled variation of fibre length.

Vat dye: A water-insoluble dye, usually containing keto groups which is normally applied to the fibre from an alkaline aqueous solution of the reduced enol ( leuco) form, and which is subsequently oxidized in the fibre to the insoluble form.

Veiling: A general term for a large variety of light, open fabrics used for such purposes as bridal veils, dress trim, evening wear, or millinery.

Velcro®: Nylon material made with both a surface of tiny hooks and a complementary surface of an adhesive pile, used in matching strips that can be pressed together or pulled apart for easy fastening and unfastening.

Velour: A medium weight, closely woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. End uses include apparel, upholstery, and drapes.

Velvet: A medium weight short cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight in a succession of rows that stand so close together as to give an even, uniform surface. It is woven using two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a filament fiber for high luster and a smooth, soft hand.

Velvet: A woven fabric with a thick, dense cut pile, a soft texture and a rich appearance. May be made by 2 different methods a) 2 layers of fabric with connecting threads are cut apart or b) warp threads are lifted over wires during weaving forming loops, and the loops are cut when the wires are withdrawn. Velvet may be plain, or the pile may be flattened, embossed, crushed, or sculptured. Originally made of silk but now also made of nylon, rayon, acrylic, and other fibers. Used for dresses, evening wear, drapery, upholstery.

Velveteen: A woven fabric generally of cotton or a cotton blend with a short, dense pile resembling velvet. Velveteen differs from velvet in that it is usually made with cotton, it generally has a shorter pile and it is a filling pile fabric whereas velvet is a warp pile fabric. Used for women's wear, drapery, upholstery.

Velveteen: A filling pile cloth in which the pile is made by cutting an extra set of filling yarns which weave in a float formation. These yarns are woven or bound into the back of the material at intervals by weaving over and under one or more warp ends.

Velour: A knit or woven fabric with a soft, short thick nap made by brushing and shearing. Knit velours are used in women's tops and sportswear. Wovens are usually heavier in weight and used for coats, jackets, drapery.

Velvety: A soft plush, dense, hand suggesting velvet.

Venetian: A warp faced, strong, heavy sateen with a high luster.

Venetian Lace: A needlepoint lace usually in a floral pattern with picot edgings.. Also called venise lace. Or venetian point.

Vest or Veste: In the 17th and 18th centuries a man's garment worn under the justaucorps, generally in rich material. Originally almost as long as the coat, the vest was gradually shortened and simplified until, in the middle of the reign of louis xv, it became the waistcoat.

Vegetable Dye: Dyes derived from insects or from the earth, including dyes made from plants and bark, which includes madder root, indigo, milkweed, pomegranate, osage, cutch and cochineal. These also include natural dyes produced from berries, roots and bark. They are not as colorfast as chrome dyes and produce unusual shades of blue, green and other colors. They contain no synthetic chemicals and, due to their natural ingredients, tend to fade faster than chrome dyes.

Vicuna: The undercoat hair of the vicuna, an animal of the llama group of the camel family. It produces a softer and finer fabric than can be obtained with any other wool or hair.

Vinal (fibre) (us): A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of ethenol (vinyl alcohol) units and in which the total of the ethenol units and any one or more of various acetal units is at least 85% by weight of the fibre. The iso generic name is vinylal.

Vinylal (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules of polyethenol (poly vinyl alcohol) of differing levels of acetalization.

Vinyon (fibre) (usa): A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of chloroethene (vinyl chloride) units.

Vinyon: A synthetic fiber polymer made from polyvinyl chloride. In some countries other than the united states, vinyon fibers are referred to as polyvinyl chloride fibers and is similar in nature to vinyl. It can bind non-woven fibers and fabrics. It was invented in 1939. See also synthetic fibers.

Virgin Wool: New wool that has never been used before, or reclaimed from any spun, woven, knitted, felted, manufactured or used products.

Virago Sleeves: Mid 17th century sleeves on female gowns and jackets that were paned and tied into a series of puffs.

Viscose: The most common type of rayon. It is produced in much greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon, the other commercial type.

Viscose: A solution obtained by dissolving cellulose xanthate in a dilute solution of caustic soda.

Viscose: The solution obtained by dissolving sodium cellulose xanthate in a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).

Viscose (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by the viscose process.

Viscose Fibre: The generic name for fibres formed by the regeneration of cellulose from viscose (q.v.) by treatment with a solution of electrolytes (salts and acids). (see also spinning bath).

Viscosity: a) general, the internal resistance to flow of a fluid.
b) cellulose, a term applied specifically to signify the viscosity (see (a) above) of a standard solution of cellulose in cuprammonium hydroxide solution of specified copper and ammonia content.
Note: The flow behaviour of a mixing is best described by a flow curve relating apparent viscosity (in mpa.s) to shearing stress (in pa). If the shearing stresses operative in the sizing were known, the apparent viscosities of the mixings at these stresses would be related to their sizing behaviour. Without this knowledge, measurements at some arbitrary stress (say 100 pa) have to be used. These are of value in characterising a particular type of size and can often be related to the take-up of size by the warp.

Viscosity: The internal resistance to flow of a fluid. The unit of viscosity is the pascal second. Note 1: The viscosity of a solution of a polymer is commonly expressed in one of the following ways: (a) viscosity ratio: The ratio of the viscosity of a solution to the viscosity of the pure solvent (formerly known as relative viscosity). (b) specific viscosity: The viscosity ratio less unity. (c) limiting viscosity number: The value obtained by extrapolating, to zero concentration, the ratio of the specific viscosity of a solution to the concentration of the solute (formerly known as intrinsic viscosity). Note 2: some fluids such as size mixings exhibit anomalous viscosity effects and cannot therefore be characterized by a single measurement. The flow behavior of a mixing is best described flow curve relating apparent viscosity to shearing stress. If the shearing stresses operative in sizing were known, then the apparent viscosity of the mixings at these stresses could be related to their sizing behavior. Without this knowledge, measurements at some arbitrary stress have to be used: these are of value in characterizing a particular type of size and can often be relate the take-up of size by the warp.

Visible Absorption Spectrum: The curve relating the absorption of light by a coloured substance (usually in solution) to the wavelength of the light.

Vizard: A face mask worn by ladies in the 17th century to protect their faces from the weather or even indoors. See also mask.

Voile: A sheer, plain weave fabric with a crisp, wiry hand resulting from the use of high twist yarns. Most commonly made of cotton, but also of silk, rayon, wool, acetate or other fibers. Used for blouses, dresses curtains.

Voile: A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. Similar in appearance to organdy and organza. Used in blouses dresses and curtains. 

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