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Letter S - Textile Dictionary

Letter S

S

Sack dress, also robe la francaise: Mid - to second half of 18th century dress that was made with a box pleated back (watteau-pleats) falling loosely from just below the shoulder to the floor.

Sack gown/robe volante/andrienne: A loose dress flaring out at the bottom, the back attached to the neckband with gathers at first, then with pleats. It was worn from about 1704 to about 1730-35.

Sacking: A general name applied to coarse fabrics used chiefly for the making of bags or sacks. They are often made of jute, hemp, flax or polyolefin, and the number of threads per centimetre may vary from 2 to over 12.

Sadri: A sleeveless jacket worn over a shirt or kurta, alike by men and women. The name of this popular garment derives possibly from aura, 'the upper part of the human breast'.

Sailcloth: Originally a tightly woven cotton or linen canvas used in the manufacture of ship and yacht sails. It is now more common for these fabrics to be manufactured from nylon for spinnakers, and polyester or aramid for foresails and mainsails. Newer developments include laminated constructions which give greater dimensional stability.

Sailcloth: Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).

Salt figure: See hottenroth number.

Salt sensitivity: The extent to which the dyeing properties of a dye are affected by the addition of a neutral electrolyte to the dyebath. Note: this term is usually only applied in the dyeing of cellulosic fibres. (2) the susceptibility of coloured material to change in colour when spotted with aqueous solutions of neutral electrolytes.

Salwatishalwar: A pajama like garment for the lower part of the body, baggy and wide at the top, and not so tight around the legs and ankles. Worn mostly by women, but also by men in some parts of india, especially in the northwest.

Sanded: A finishing process that brings the fabric in contact with sandpaper or another abrasive material. This may be done to raise surface fiber, impart a peached or sueded hand or to create a surface effect.

Sandwashed: A finishing process in which the fabric is washed with sand or another abrasive material to produce a soft, sueded hand and a faded appearance.

Sanforized®: Registered trademark of the sanforize company, which is the most widely recognized method of shrinkage control used by major textile mills worldwide. The process maintains residual shrinkage to not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the u.s. standard wash test ccc-t- 191a), despite repeated washings.

Sansevieria: A fibre obtained from the leaves of various species of plants of the genus sansevieria. Also known as 'bow-string hemp'.

Saran (fibre) (us): A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 80% by weight of 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene chloride) units. The ISO generic name is chlorofibre

Saran Fiber: A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn furniture, upholstery, and carpets.

Sasawashi: A sustainable fabric that is derived from a blend of Japanese paper and kumazasa herb. Saswashi is a beautiful fabric that has a soft touch similar to cashmere or Egyptian cotton, but is has a dry feel like linen. It does not pill or fuzz, and is twice as absorbent as cotton. It is said to have natural anti-allergen and anti-bacterial properties.

Sash: In the 60s and 70s of the 17th century a broad, loosely knotted sash was often worn around the hips over the coat by men. Usually made of silk and the edges decorated with tassled fringes.

Sateen: A) fabric, a fabric made in sateen weave. B) weave, a weft-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface that is free from twill (q.v.). Note: to prevent confusion with "satin", it is preferable to refer to this as "weft sateen weave".

Sateen: A smooth, strong, lustrous satin weave fabric made with cotton or other spun yarns. In a warp face satin, the most common, the filling yarns cross over one and under several warp yarns, thus mainly the warp yarns are visible on the face. In a filling face satin, the filling yarns cross under one and over several warp yarns thus the mainly the filling yarns are visible on the face.

Sateen Fabric: This cloth is made with a 5-end or an 8-shaft satin weave in warp-face or filling-face effects made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.

Sateen Weave: A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns. The cloth is made with a 5-end or an 8- shaft satin weave in warp-face or filling-face effects.

Satin fabric: A) fabric made in satin weave. B) weave, a warp-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface, free from twill. Note: to prevent confusion with "sateen", it is preferable to refer to this as "warp satin weave".

Satin: A smooth strong, lustrous satin weave fabric made with silk or manufactured filament yarns. In a warp face satin, the most common, the filling yarns cross over one and under several warp yarns, thus mainly the warp yarns are visible on the face. In a filling face satin, the filling yarns cross under one and over several warp yarns thus the mainly the filling yarns are visible on the face. Some satins have a filament yarn face and spun yarn back.

Satin Fabric: A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric face with a dull back. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.

Satin Stripe: Stripes in a fabric formed by a satin weave, often alternating with sheer plain weave stripes.

Satin-back crepe: See crepe-back satin.

Satin Weave: A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns. The name satin originated in zaytun, china. Satin cloths were originally of silk and simulations are now made from acetate, rayon, and some of the other man-made fibers.

Saturation Bonding: A method of making nonwoven fabrics in which a fibre web or batt is treated by overall application of an adhesive in liquid form. (see also adhesive-bonded nonwoven fabric.)

Saxony: A soft, heavy luxurious, napped fabric made from fine merino wool originally from saxony, Germany. Used for coats 2. A soft tweed fabric of fine wool. Used for sport coats.

Saxony: A high-quality fabric, made of wool of 60s quality or finer, spun on the woollen system.

Scale Margins: The external margins of cuticular scales. The distance between scale margins is described as close, near, distant, or a combination of these such as near to distant.

Scale Patterns: The pattern formed by the scale margins. Most scale patterns are waved, although not all to the same extent. Patterns may described as regular, irregular or streaked. A regular waved pattern is one in which the waves are of almost equal wavelength and equal amplitude; an irregular wave pattern is one in which the waves are of unequal wavelength and amplitude. A streaked wave is one in which the waves are interrupted by steeply inclined scale margins. The term waved is frequently used in conjunction with another adjective e.g., Waved crenate margins. Other scale-patterns are:- chevron. A waved pattern. In single chevron either the troughs or crests are narrow and v-shaped. In double chevron both the trough and crests are v-shaped. Crenate. Margins which are 'notched', i.e. Have fairly shallow indentations but sharp peaks. Mosaic. A pattern composed of a number of units; this type is divided into regular in which the units are approximately the same size and irregular in which the units of the mosaic are of different sizes. Pectinate comb-like margins. This type is subdivided into coarse pectinate, which the 'teeth' are large and wide , and lanceolate in which the 'teeth' are long and narrow. Petal. Patterns in which the scales have the appearance of over-lapping flower petal. This type is divided into irregular petal and diamond petal. Rippled. Margins having indentations, the troughs and peaks being deeper but more rounded than in the crenate type.

Scalloped: A series of semicircular curves along the edge of a fabric. Used as decorative edge for skirts, curtains.

Scenic: Refers to print motifs with a landscape theme.

Scented: Fabric that is purposely impregnated with a chemical that gives it an aroma able to withstand multiple washings.

Schappe Silk: Originally, yarn spun from fibre degummed by schapping, but nowadays the term increasingly used as a generic alternative to spun silk. Note: The change in meaning reflects the greatly decreased use of fermentation processes for degumming.

Schappe-Spun: Originally used to describe a silk yarn from fibre degummed by the schapping process, but now used both in the UK., And elsewhere in Europe as a term synonymous with silk-spun.

Schapping: A European method of degumming applied to silk waste, which removes part of the gum by a fermentation process. Up to 10% of gum may remain on the fibre.

Schiffli Embroidery: Embroidery done on fabric using a schiffli machine. Capable of intricate designs.

Schiffli Lace: A lace made with a schiffli embroidery machine by embroidering the design on a net ground. The ground may be kept or later burned away.

Schreiner: Descriptive of a calender with two or three bowls in which one (the middle one in a three-bowl calender) is of highly polished steel engraved with very fine parallel lines (grooves) running at an angle of approximately 20 to either the horizontal or the vertical. (2) (finish) descriptive of a finish obtained by passing a fabric through a schreiner calender. The object of the process is to enhance the lustre of the fabric. (3) (bowl) the engraved bowl of a schreiner calender. Note 1.. The number of lines on the bowl may vary from 5-24 per millimetre, but is usually in the range 9-14. Note 2: The angle of inclination of the lines is chosen to ensure good cover of the fabric, e.g., A low inclination of 15-20 is recommended for weft sateen fabrics. Optimum effects are obtained when the lines slightly cross the direction of the surface yarn twist. Note 3: In use, the engraved bowl is heated, usually to 60-120c for finishing cotton fabrics.

Scotchguard: A water repellent and oil repellent finish trademarked by 3m company.

Scouring: The treatment of textile materials in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural waxes, proteins and other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities. Note: The treatment varies with the type of fibre. Cotton and flax goods are normally scoured at the boil or under pressure with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or with lime followed by sodium carbonate (soda ash) or with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash); wool goods with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate (soda ash) or soap or both temperatures not exceeding 50c, or substantially neutral liquors containing a synthetic detergent in the presence of an inorganic salt; viscose rayon with soap and sodium carbonate (soda ash) at or below the boil; cellulose ethanoate (acetate) with soap and sodium carbonate (soda ash) liquors of relatively low alkalinity and at temperatures below the boil to prevent alkaline hydrolysis of the ethanoate (acetate);nylon, etc., With soap and sodium carbonate (soda ash) or ammonia below the boil, although special cases neutral or acidic liquors may be used.

Scouring: The treatment of textile materials in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities. Note: The treatment required to produce a refined textile varies with the condition and type of fibre processed.

Screen Printing: A design reproduction process, developed from stencilling, in which print paste is forced through unblocked areas of a mesh, in contact with the substrate. The mesh may be a woven fabric or a fine screen, flat or cylindrical (rotary screen). Pressure is applied to the paste by a squeegee (blade roller), which is moved when the screen is stationary or stationary when the rotary screen is rotating.

Scrim: A lightweight open weave fabric usually of cotton. Used for curtains or as a base for needlework, lamination or carpeting.

Scrim: A general term, irrespective of structure, for a lightweight basecloth included in a nonwoven fabric.

Scrim: A generic term for a low-quality plain-weave fabric of the muslin type with traditional cover factors for both warp and weft of about 4. Note: The mass per unit area of the fabric will vary with the 35-70 g/m² when the fabric is made from cotton.

Scroop: A rustling noise and a characteristic 'dry' handle when a material is compressed by hand. Scroop is usually associated with silk but also produced in certain man-made cellulosic fibres, yarns, or fabrics by suitable finishing treatments. It is probably associated with a high coefficient of static friction relative to the dynamic coefficient.

Scutcher: A machine for continuously opening fabric which has previously been in rope form.

Scutching (cotton): An operation in which cotton is opened mechanically, cleaned and formed into a continuous lap.

Scutching (flax): The operation of separating the woody part of deseeded or retted flax straw from the fibre.

Sea island cotton: The exceptionally fine, long-staple types of cotton grown in the west indies.

Seam Line: Is the line which indicates where the seam should be stitched - or it is plainly the stitching line of any garment.

Seamless Knitting: A unique process of circular knitting, done on either santoni or sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps of sutting and sewing.

Seamless Technology: This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (see seamless knitting), or "welding/bonding technology", which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing threads. (see welding.)

Seam Mark: A particular form of pressure mark (q.v.) in a fabric, and that is produced by the relief print-off of defects such as slubs or seams joining lengths of fabric, under excessive rolling tension or by contraction on the roll during wet processing.

Secondary Cellulose Acetate: An ester formed from cellulose and ethanoic acid (acetic acid) used to make acetate fibres. Note: purified cellulose is ethanoylated (acetylated) by ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) in the presence of a catalyst (such as sulphuric acid or perchloric acid) in a solvent such as dichloromethane (methylene chloride) or ethanoic acid. The reaction proceeds until primary cellulose acetate containing 60 % of combined ethanoic acid is formed. Secondary cellulose acetate is formed from the primary acetate by partial hydolysis. It is obtained by adding water in excess of that required to react with the residual ethanoic anhydride, which thus allows the hydrolysis to take place.

Secrte: French word for under layer of a skirt. Two layers were always worn, even when the outer layer modeste was closed in front.

Section Mark: Warp stripes that occur at regular intervals across part or all of the fabric width as the result of tension variation in the sections during section warping (q.v.) or because of differential dyeability of the warp yarns.

Section Warping: A) yorkshire warping, scotch warping and silk-system warping, a two-stage machine method of preparing a warp on beam and that consists of:
1. winding the warp in sections onto a reel (drum, mill or swift); or
2. beaming-off the complete warp from the reel onto a warp beam.
B) a two-stage machine method of preparing a warp on beam and that consists of:
1. winding "section" beams; or
2. assembling "section" beams in "warp-beam" form.

Seed Cotton: Cotton which has been harvested but not ginned, so that the fibre is still attached to the seed.

Seed Hair: Fibres growing from the surface of seeds or from the inner surfaces of fruit cases or pods. Such fibre (seed hairs) are formed by the marked elongation of epidermal cells. Note. From a botanical aspect, cotton is a seed hair, since it is an outgrowth in the form of single cells from the epidermis or outer skin of cotton seeds. In this respect, cotton differs from fine vegetable fibres, which are composed of a number of plant cells, usually joined and cemented together to form a bundle and often occurring in the stems (e.g., Flax) or leaves (e.g., Sisal) of plants or shrubs. Nevertheless, in commerce and industry, it is customary to refer to cotton as vegetable fibre. Calotropis (akund) and asclepias (milkweed) are other examples of hair growing on seeds, whereas eriodendron (java kapok) grows on the inner surface and the placenta of seed pods.

Seersucker: A lightweight fabric with puckered stripes made by weaving with some of the warp yarns tight and some loose. The loose warp threads become crinkled. Frequently made in yarn dye stripes and plaids. Often made of cotton or a cotton blend but can be in a variety of fibers. Used for summer clothing.

Seersucker: A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.

Selvage or selvedge: The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric. Other names for it are listing, self-edge, raw edge.

Selvedge (usa selvage) widening: A method of shaping a garment panel by introducing additional needles at one or both selvedges in a sequence designed to increase the width.

Selvedge, cut ''selvedge, torn'': A selvedge in which three or more adjacent yarns have been severed.

Selvedge ''list'': The longitudinal edges of a fabric that are formed during weaving with the weft not only turning at the edges but also passing continuously across the width of the fabric from edge. Note: selvedges are often up to 20mm wide and may differ from the body of the fabric in construction or weave or both, or they may be of exactly the same construction as the body of the fabric and be separated from it by yarns of a different colour. Although selvedges may contain fancy effects or may have brand names or fabric descriptions woven into or printed on them, their main purposes is to give strength to the edges of the fabric so that it will behave satisfactorily in weaving and subsequent processes.
A) leno edge, a set of threads that interlace with a leno weave (q.v.) either at the edge or in the body of a fabric. In the latter case, it prevents fraying when the fabric is severed in the direction of the warp. Note: when in the body of the fabric, a leno edge is often referred to as a "central selvedge". (see also splits).
B) sealed edge, the cut edge of a fabric that has been treated by heat or chemical means to prevent fraying of the edge.
C) shuttleless-loom edge, 1. In some cases, either one or both edges are different from the normal woven selvedge in that the weft is held in position at the turn by threads other than the warp threads, e.g. by the use of an independent thread to lock the weft in position at the edge, or by interlocking of the weft threads. In narrow-fabric weaving this type of edge is often called a "needleloom selvedge".
2. In other cases, the weft is severed just beyond the edge of the fabric and the cut end is tucked into the shed (q.v.) formed on the next pick. 

Selvedge, jacquard ''jacquard selvedge'': A selvedge that has a jacquard-woven pattern or lettering.

Selvedge, Tight: A selvedge that is tighter than the adjacent fabric owing to incorrect balance of the fabric structure between the ground and the selvedges, or owing to the selvedge ends being woven at too high a tension.

Semi Bleached: Fabric that has been lightly or partially bleached.

Semi-Dull: Refers to fabric from manufactured yarn that has been delustered to reduce but not completely eliminate the shine.

Semi-Worsted Spun: A term applied to yarn spun from sliver produced by carding and gilling in which the fibres are substantially parallel, the carded sliver not having been condensed or combed. Alternatively, the yarn may be produced from a roving. Note: The above definition is descriptive of processing technique and not of the fibre content.

Sequestering Agent: A chemical capable of reacting with metallic ions so that they become part of a complex anion. The principle is used to extract calcium ions from hard water, iron ii and copper ions from peroxide bleach liquors and various metallic ions from dyebaths, by forming a water-soluble complex in which the metal is held in a non-ionizable form.

Sequins: A small, flat, reflective disk with a hole for attaching to the fabric for decorative purposes. May be of metal plastic or shell.

Serge: A smooth faced 2x2 twill weave fabric. Traditionally of wool but may be of other fibers. Used for trousers, suitings.

Serge: One of the oldest basic terms in textiles, it now implies any smooth face cloth made with a two-up and two-down twill weave, especially pertinent to worsted serge.

Sett ''set'' (woven fabric): Denotes the spacing of ends or picks, or both, and is expressed as the number of threads per centimetre. Note: The state of the fabric at the time should be described, e.g. loom, grey, finished.

Serpentaux: women's hairstyle, with almost straight hair hanging down, it followed the coiffure en bouffons during the reign of louis xiii.

Sett; set: A term used to indicate the density of ends or picks or both in a woven fabric, usually expressed as the number of threads per centimetre. The state of the fabric at the time should be described e.g. Loomstate or finished. (2) synonym for count of reed. (3) the term may be used in such phrases as high sett, closely sett etc., Where a high end or pick density is indicated.

Setting: The process of conferring stability of form upon fibres, yarns, or fabrics, usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions. Note: The term is sometimes used in conjunction with a description of the particular characteristics to be stabilized (e.g., Twist setting, crimp setting) or of the setting medium (e.g., Heat setting, steam setting).

S-finish: A finish produced on triethanoate (cellulose triacetate) textiles by surface saponification.

Setting: The process of conferring dimensional stability on fibres, yarns or fabrics, generally by means of moist or dry heat. Note: The operation of setting is applied to textile materials of all kinds but assumes special significance in the treatment of synthetic-polymer materials such as nylon, polyester, etc.

Shade (n): A common term loosely used to describe broadly a particular colour or depth, e.g. pale shade, 2 % shade, mode shade, fashion shade.

Shade (v): To bring about, in dyeing, relatively small modifications in the colour of a substrate by adding further small amounts of dye, especially with the object of obtaining a more accurate match with a required pattern or colour.

Shading: A side-to-side change in colour across the width of a fabric.

Shaft: The finer and proximal portion of a guard hair.

Shafty wool: Strong, dense and well grown wool with good length and spinning characteristics.

Shahtoosh: The hair of the tiberian antelope (pantholops hogsoni), locally called chiru. The un list this animal under the convention of international irade in endangered species, appendix 1, i.e. Giving it highest protection. The only way to collect the wool is to kill the antelope.

Shaker: A heavy 1x1 rib knit.

Shantung: A plain weave fabric with slubbed yarns or an uneven ribbed surface texture. Originally of wild (tussah) silk but now may be of cotton or man made fibers.

Shantung: A silk fabric very similar to but heavier than pongee. A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.

Shantung-type yarn: An irregular yarn made from fibres other than natural silk to imitate the yarn used for making shantung.

Shaping; Weft Knitting: Descriptive of the process used to shape a knitted product during knitting by changing the number of stitches per course, wale, or unit area in the fabric. The various methods which may be used separately or in combination are:

Sharara: A kind of loose, trailing pajama (q. V.) Worn by women.

Sharkskin: A woven fabric with the yarns in both warp and filling alternating white and color giving it a salt and pepper look. Used for suitings . Usually a 2x2 twill weave but may also be plain weave. 2. A crisp fabric with a pebbly surface and a dull luster usually of filament yarn such as acetate or triacetate. Often found in pure white. Uses for uniforms, tennis clothes.

Sharkskin: A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate, triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.

Shear: To cut the fleece from a sheep. (2) to cut a nap or pile to uniform length or height (also called crop). (3) to cut loose fibres or yam from the surface of a fabric after weaving (also called crop).

Sheared: A finishing process in which the fibers on the surface of the fabric are mechanically trimmed to create an even nap. Often follows brushing of the fabric. Done on fleeces, moleskins, pile fabrics, wools.

Sheer: A thin, fine, semi transparent fabric.

Sheeting: A plain weave fabric with even or close to even thread counts in warp and weft. Often of cotton. Carded yarn versions are used for inexpensive apparel, furniture covers and as a base for laminates. Finer yarns and higher counts may be used for bed sheets.

Shed ''warp shed'': The opening formed when the warp threads are separated in the operation of weaving.

Shedding: The first of the three basic motions in weaving, in which a shed (q.v.) is formed.

Sherpa/berber: A heavy fabric with clumped pile resembling the fleece of a sheep. Used for outerwear trim and lining.

Sherwani: A coat like garment, worn by men close to the body, of knee-length, and opening in front with button-fastenings. Related to the achkan (q.v.); Especially popular at the hyderabad court and in aligarh.

Shetland: A soft shaggy wool tweed fabric. Originally referred to only wool from the shetland islands in scotland but now refers to any wool fabric with similar characteristics. May be woven or knit. Used for overcoats, sportcoats, sweaters.

Shield: The wider and flattened portion of a guard hair. In many guard hairs the fine shaft widens out into a flattened shield, the proportion of shaft to shield varying in different types of fibres.

Shiny: Refers to fabric having a surface with a high reflectance of light.

Shives (flax): Short pieces of woody waste beaten from straw during scutching.

Shivey Wool: Wool that contains small particles of vegetable matter other than burrs.

Shoddy: Fibrous material made in the woollen trade by pulling down new or old knitted or loosely woven fabric in rag form. (see also mungo and note the distinction.) (2) droppings from woollen cards consisting of very short fibres that may be heavily charged with oil and dirt.

Shot Effect: A changeable colour effect on a lustrous or shiny fabric in which the warp yarns and weft yarns are of contrasting colours. Note: The fabric normally has a plain weave or a 2/2 twill weave when this effect is required.

Showerproof (v): So to treat a textile fabric as to delay the absorption and penetration of water. Note: In the case of a fabric, a degree of permeability to air is retained.

Shrinkage: The reduction in length (or width) of a fibre, yam, or fabric. It may be induced by, e.g., Wetting, steaming, alkali treatment, wet processing as in laundering, or dry heat.

Shrink-Resistant Finish: A treatment applied to a textile material to make it shrink-resistant.

Shrink-Resistant; shrink-resisting or shrink-resist: descriptive of textile materials that exhibit dimensional stability conforming to specified standards based on tests designed to simulate normal conditions of usage. Note: this property may be an inherent property of the textile material or may be conferred by physical or chemical processes or both.

Shuttle: The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other side of the loom.

Shuttle: (weaving) A yarn package carrier that is passed through the shed (q.v.) to insert weft during weaving.

Shuttle (lace machines): (1) (schiffli embroidery machine) a boat-shaped yam-package holder travelling in a slide in such a manner that it passes through the loop formed in the needle thread thus forming the back thread of the lock stitch. (2) (lace furnishing machine) a term used in scotland for the carriage

Siddo Rags: Rags consisting of interlinings from garments. The best types are produced from fabrics made from yams of hair, or blends of hair with wool, made on the worsted system.

Sidha Paijama: Pajama (q.v.) With a straight cut.

Sighting Colour: See fugitive tint.

Silhouette: Dark-shaded profile portrait outline of any garment.

Silk: The fibroin fibre forming the cocoons produced by silkworms.

Silk: The only natural fiber that comes in a filament form; from 300 to 1,600 yards in length as reeled from the cocoon produced by the silkworm. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms; tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from asia, primarily china.

Silk Noil: A fabric produced from silk waste fibers that are too short for producing spun silk.

Silk Noils: fibres extracted during silk dressing or combing that are too short for producing spun silk. These fibres are usually spun on the condenser system to produce what are known as 'silk-noil yams'.

Silk Waste: The fibres remaining after drawing off, reeling, or throwing nett silk, and fibres obtained from damaged or unreelable cocoons.

Silk, wild: See wild silk.

Silk-Like: Refers to fabric having a hand that suggests the feel of silk.

Silk-spun: A term applied to staple yam produced by dressing or combing and spinning on machinery originally designed for processing waste silk into yam (see spun silk). Note: whenever the term silk-spun is used, it is qualified by the name of the fibre and fibres from which the material is made.

Silver Coated: A fabric with a silver colored coating. Used in outerwear.

Singe: To remove, by burning against a hot plate, in a flame, or by infra-red radiation, unwanted surface hairs or filaments. The operation is usually performed as a preliminary to bleaching and finishing.

Singeing: Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.

Singles Yarn: A thread produced by a single unit of a spinning machine, extrusion machine or silk-reeling machine.

Sinkage: (1) loss of weight in wool cleansing, usually expressed as a percentage. (2) unaccounted or 'invisible' loss of weight in processing, usually expressed as a percentage.

Sisal: A pale cream fibre obtained from the leaf of the sisal plant (agave sisalana perrine).the fibre from other agave plants, and particularly from henequen (agave fourcroydes lemaire) resembles sisal very closely and indeed is sometimes also termed 'sisal'. A strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the agave plant, which is found in the west indies, central america, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.

Size: A gelatinous film-forming substance in solution or dispersion, usually applied to warps but sometimes to wefts, generally before weaving. Note: A) the main types of substance used are carbohydrates and their derivatives, gelatin and animal glues, linseed oil, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. B) the objects of sizing prior to weaving are to protect the yarns from abrasion in the healds and the reed and against each other, to strengthen them and, by the additional of oils and fats, to lubricate them. C) a size may be applied to carpets (e.g. starch) and occasionally to wool fibres (e.g. animal glue).

Skein: See hank.

Skein Sizing: See hank sizing.

Skew ''skewness'': A fabric condition in which the warp and weft yarns, although straight, are not at right angles to each other.

Skin Wool: Wool removed from the skins of slaughtered sheep . Note: there are three methods of removal. (a) lime-steeping, (b) sweating (by bacterial action), and (c) painting with, for example, sodium sulphide.

Skirting (wool): The removal of wool different from the main bulk from the edges of a fleece. See also wool classing (2) a wool sorting term for stained parts of the fleece such as the legs and the whole edge of the fleece.

Slack End: A warp yarn that appears puckered as the result of having been woven under less tension than the adjacent warp yarns.

Slack Pick: A weft thread or part of a weft thread that has been woven into the cloth at a lower tension than the adjacent normal picks.

Slashings: Small openings made in a garment, showing the lining. Slashings (crevs, chiquetades) were made in garments, shoes and gloves.

Slay: Also sley. That oscillating part of a weaving machine, positioned between the healds and the fell of the cloth, which carries the reed.

Slinky: A market term for a shiny, drapey knit fabric of synthetic fiber with fine ribs.

Slipe: Lime-steeped wools.

Sliver: A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.

Sliver Knitting: A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the knitting needles.

Slope: Loose clothes tunics, smocks, trousers.

Slub: A short abnormally thick place in a yarn.

Slub: A thickened place (in a spun yarn) that has tapering ends and a diameter several times that of the adjacent normal yarn.

Slubbed: Refers to fabric using yarn with uneven areas, i.e. With a thick and thin appearance occurring at irregular intervals.

Slubbing: The name given, individually or collectively, to relatively thick fibrous strands, and also to strips of web from a condenser card that have been consolidated into a circular cross-section by rubbing.

Slurry Steeping: A process in the manufacture of viscose rayon in which a pulp is dispersed in a solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) in the preparation of alkali-cellulose.

Smart Textiles: Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.

Smash: A relatively large hole in a fabric and characterised by many broken warp ends and floating picks, or a prominent mark that remains after the repair of such a hole.

Smooth: Refers to fabric with an even surface with little surface hair or texture.

Smooth-Drying: See drip-dry.

Snags: Yarns, fibres or filaments in the form of long loops that have been drawn out from the structure of a fabric by a protruding sharp object.

Snarl: A short length of warp or weft yarn that has twisted on itself owing to lively twist (see twist liveliness) or insufficient tension. Note: The snarling may occur during or prior to the weaving process.

Soft shell: soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric. Stretch wovens with a dwr treatment.

Soft: Having a gentle, pliable, supple, hand.

Softening: The application of a chemical agent and/or mechanical process, e.g., Calendering, to impart to fabrics a soft handle and frequently a smooth appearance. A number of chemical softening agents also confer a fullness of handle.

Soil Release: Any one of a class of textile finishes that make it possible to remove stains from fabrics by ordinary domestic washing.

Soil Release Finish: A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease of soil removal.

Solid: Having a single even color.

Solitaire: Narrow black ribbon fashionable in the 18th century from about 1725 onwards. It was tied to the wig, then brought around to the front of the neck and fastened, usually in a bow, over the stock.

Solution-Dyed: A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most destructive agents.

Solvent Bonding: A method of making nonwoven fabrics in which a solvent is used to soften the fibre surfaces in a web or batt and hence cause bonding.

Solvent Dyeing: Dyeing carried out from a continuous non-aqueous phase, Note: Water may be added to assist the dyeing process.

Solvent Finishing: The treatment of textile materials with reagents, other than dyes, dissolved in organic solvents.

Solvent Scouring: The treatment of fabrics in organic solvent media to remove impurities such as lubricating oils and spin finishes.

Soupling: A softening process applied to continuous-filament silk yarns that are to be dyed 'in the gum'. The yarns are treated in warm soap solution and softened in an acid tartrate bath. Such treatments normally remove some of the gum, to leave 10-15% on the fibre.

Sour: To treat textile materials in a bath of dilute acid.

Soybean Fiber: Also known as “vegetable cashmere”, soybean fiber is a sustainable textile fiber made from the residue of soybeans from tofu production. It is part of an effort to move consumers away from petrochemical textile products and turn waste into useful products. Soybean fiber has superior warmth retention, moisture transmission and bacterial resistance; it is also soft, smooth, and light. With a cashmere-like texture, it has a silky luster and the same moisture absorption as cotton. It is typically used for underwear, socks, scarves, sheets, and yoga/exercise apparel.

Space Dyed: Sections of the yarn are dyed in different colors resulting in a fabric with a multi-color effect.

Spacer Fabric: Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3d appearance.

Spandex Fiber: A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length. This fiber is widely used in the manufacturing of garments to create elasticity.

Spandex (fibre) (us): A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polymer comprised of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane. The ISO generic name is elastane.

Spanish Blonde Lace: Usually a large floral handmade bobbin lace sewn to a net ground and outlined in a heavy thread. Commonly cream color but also may be white or black.

Sparkle: A fabric that uses a yarn, usually nylon with a high reflectance of light.

Specific Length: A count of the number of unit lengths per unit mass of linear textile material.

Specific Stress (formerly mass-stress): The ratio of force to the linear density. This ratio is equal to the stress per unit density and is expressed as mn/dtex or n/tex.

Spf (sun protection factor): Spf measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for spf is done by using a living organism or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.

Spinneret: A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.

Spin Stretch Ratio: In man-made filament extrusion, the ratio of take-up or haul-off speed to the average speed of the spinning fluid as it leaves the spinneret. Note: The terms draw-down and extrusion ratio are also commonly used. Spinneret; spinnerette (1) (man-made fibres) a nozzle or plate provided with fine holes or slits through which a fibre-forming solution or melt is extruded in the manufacture of man-made fibres. (2) (entomology) the small orifices, on the lower lip of the silkworm and at the rear of the abdomen of the spider, through which thread-forming material is extruded in the formation of a cocoon, web or other filamentous structure.

Spin-drawing: A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which most of the orientation is introduced between the first forwarding device and the take-up, i.e., Spinning and drawing are integrated sequential stages.

Spin-Draw-Texturing: A process for making textured yarns in which spinning, drawing and texturing stages are integrated sequentially on a single machine.

Spinning: This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.

Spinning: The process or processes used in the production of yarns or filaments. Note: A) this term may apply to the drafting and twisting of natural or man-made fibres (see continuous spinning, intermittent spinning, open-end spinning), to the extrusion of filaments by spiders and silkworms, or to the production of filaments from glass, metals or fibre-forming polymers. B) in the spinning of man-made filaments, fibre-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the holes of a spinning jet (q.v.) or die at a controlled rate (extrusion). There are five general methods of spinning man-made filaments, but a combination of two (or more) of these methods may also be used. They are the following:
1. Dispersion spinning, the process in which polymers that tend to be infusible, insoluble and generally interactable (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene) are dispersed as fine particles in a carrier, such a sodium aliginate or sodium xanthate solutions, which permits extrusion into fibres, after which the dispersed polymer is coalesced by a heating process; the carrier is removed either by a heating or by a dissolving process.
2. Dry spinning, the process in which a solution of the polymer is extruded into a heated chamber to remove the solvent and leave the solid filament.
3. Melt spinning, the process as used in the manufacture of nylon in which the fibre-forming polymer is melted and extruded into air or other gas or a suitable liquid, where it is cooled and solidified.
4. Reaction spinning, the process in which polymerisation is achieved during the extrusion through spinning jet (q.v.) system of reactants.
5. Wet spinning, the process as used in the manufacture of viscose rayon in which the solution of the polymer is extruded into coagulating media where the polymer is regenerated.
C) in the bast fibre and leaf fibre industries, the terms "dry spinning" and "wet spinning" refer to the spinning of fibres in the drystate and in the wet state, respectively.

Spinning: The present participle of the verb 'to spin' used verbally, adjectivally, or as a noun, meaning process or the processes used in the production of yarns or filaments. Note 1: The term may apply to: (i) the drafting and, where appropriate, the insertion of twist in natural or staple man-made fibres to form a yarn; (ii) the extrusion of filaments by spiders or silkworms; or (iii) the production of filaments from glass, metals, fibre-forming polymers or ceramics. Note 2: In the spinning of man-made filaments, fibre-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the holes of a spinneret or die at a controlled rate. There are five general methods of spinning man-made filaments, but combinations of these methods may be used (see dispersion spinning, dry spinning, melt spinning, reaction spinning, and wet spinning) Note 3: In the bast and leaf-fibre industries, the terms 'wet spinning' and 'dry spinning' refer to the spinning of fibres into yarns in the wet state and in the dry state respectively.

Spinning Bath: A coagulating bath into which a solution or dispersion of a fibre-forming polymer is extruded during the processes of wet-spinning or dispersion spinning respectively.

Spinning Frame: A machine consisting of a number of spinning positions for converting slivers, slubbings, or roving into yarn.

Spinning Pump: A small pump, usually of the gear-wheel type, used to provide a uniform flow of a spinning solution or molten polymer to a spinning jet.

Spinning Solution: A solution of fibre-forming polymer as prepared for extrusion through a spinneret. Note: A spinning solution is often referred to as dope, a term historically associated with cellulose ethanoate (cellulose acetate) solutions as varnishes.

Split Film: A yarn produced by the process of fibrillation.

Split weft ''strained weft'': A continous-filament thread that has lost some of its filaments, usually as a result of abrasion or excessive tension during winding or weft insertion and that appears as a thin yarn.

Splits: Two or more lengths of fabric that are woven side by side and subsequently separated from each other by cutting along lines formed by leaving one or more dents. Note: fraying at the cut edges may be prevented by the use of a leno edge (q.v.) or other suitable means.

Sponging: A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.

Spongy: Having a surface that can be compressed but recovers.

Spot Weave: A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or jacquard attachment.

Spun Yarn: A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting fabrics.

Spray Bonding: A method of making nonwoven fabrics in which droplets of adhesive are sprayed on to the fibre web or batt.

Spray Dyeing: Application of colorant to a substrate using a spray gun with the object of producing ombre effects.

Spray Print: Color is applied to the fabric by spraying dye on the surface with a compressed air gun. Multiple colors maybe applied by using a different stencil for each color. Ombre or tie dye effects may be achieved.

Sprit (flax): Small pieces of woody epidermal tissue adhering firmly to flax fibre strands.

Spun silk: (1) yarn produced by dressing or combing processes from silk waste that has been 'boiled off' to remove the gum. (2) descriptive of fabrics produced from spun silk.

Spun Yarn: Commonly used to describe a yarn that consists of staple fibres held together (usually) by twist.

Spunbonded: A method of producing nonwoven fabric in a continuous process. Polymer is extruded through a spinneret and the resulting filaments are cooled and laid down in a web along a continuous conveyor belt . The web is then bonded by heat, pressure or adhesives to form the fabric.

Spunlaced: A method of producing a nonwoven fabric by mechanically entangling the fibers with high pressure water jets. Also called hydroentangled fabric.

Spunlaid Fabric: A nonwoven fabric made by the extrusion of filaments that are laid down in the form of a web and bonded.

Spur Leather: A butterfly shaped piece of leather that was stitched across the instep of soft, crumpling leather boots to hold the gold or silver rowel spurs. First half of 17th century, "cavalier"-style.

Stain repellent: The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.

Stain Resistance: A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.

Staining: Any adventitious (unwanted) colour, owing to dye, dirt or iron, on textile material. Note: A) severe stain is one that will resist processing. B) the fugitive or permanent colouring of material for identification purposes.

Staining: An undesirable local discoloration. (2) in fastness testing of coloured textiles; the transfer of colorant from the test material to adjacent materials

Standard atmosphere for testing: A) Standard temperature atmosphere, an atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a temperature of 20 ± 2°c. B) standard tropical atmosphere, an atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a temperature of 27 ± 2°c.

Standard atmosphere for testing: Standard temperate atmosphere: An atmosphere at the prevailing barometric pressure with relative humidity of 65 % and a temperature of 20 c (68 f). (b) standard tropical atmosphere: An atmosphere at the prevailing barometric pressure with a relative humidity of 65% and a temperature of 27 c (81 f).

Standard condition for physical testing: The condition of a textile material that has been dried to approximately constant mass in an atmosphere that has a relative humidity not exceeding 10%, and then kept in the appropriate standard atmosphere for testing (q.v.) until it has reached equilibrium.
Note: In cases where a textile material is not likely to lose volatile matter other than water, or to change dimensions, the preliminary drying may be carried out in an oven at 50-60°c situated in the standard atmosphere for testing which is a convenient way of achieving a relative humidity of about 10 %. When the oven is supplied with the supplementary standard atmosphere, an oven temperature of 60-70°c is required. Equilibrium with the standard atmosphere for testing may be assumed when successive determinations for mass at intervals of at least 2h show no progressive change exceeding 0,25 % in the mass of the textile material.

Staple: A lock or tuft of fibres of uniform properties and hence a lock of tuft prepared to demonstrate fibre length. In bulk, a mass of fibres having a certain homogeneity of properties, usually length. Used as a verb, to bring fibres to a certain uniformity of properties, usually length, e.g. By sorting wool or by cutting filaments.

Staple Fibre (man-made): Man-made fibres of predetermined short lengths.

Staple Fibers: Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.

Staple Length: A quantity by which a sample of fibrous raw material is characterized as regards its technically most important fibre length. Note: The staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of the longer fibres in a hand prepared tuft or 'staple' in its naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). With cotton, on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres when measured in a straightened condition.

Starch: A carbohydrate component extracted from certain plants and used in sizing and finishing. Its use in these operations depends on its adhesive or film-forming properties. Steeping (1) (general) the treatment of textile material in a bath of liquid, usually, although not necessarily, without agitation. The term is also applied to processes whereby the materials are impregnated with a liquor, highly squeezed, and then allowed to lie. (2) in rayon manufacture, the process of immersing the dissolving pulp in a solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) of mercerizing strength (17-20%). The purpose of this treatment is twofold: (a) to produce alkali-cellulose, and (b) to remove soluble impurities from the pulp. The operation is controlled by time and temperature. (3) the process of retting flax straw by immersion in an aqueous liquor.

Steeple Crown Hat: Having a high pointed crown and flat brim, and fashionable in the first half of the 17th century.

Steinkirk, also steenkerk: Long cravat, often tipped with a fringe or lace, worn with one end tucked through the buttonhole or pinned with a brooch at the coat-front or waistcoat. Women tucked their cravat into their corset laces. Fashionable among men and also for women for several decades at the end of the 17th century and until the mid-18th century. The name is said to come from the battle of steinkirk in holland in 1692, when french soldiers were in too much of a hurry to tie their cravats properly before going out to fight, but this may be doubted, because apparently this fashion was already occasionally seen earlier.

Stenter ''tenter'': An open-width fabric-finishing machine in which the selvedges are so held by attachments to a pair of endless travelling chains that the fabric is finished to a specified width.
Note: A) attachments may be pins (pin stenter) or clips (clip stenter). B) such machines are used for: 1. drying; 2. heat-setting of thermoplastic materials; 3. fixation of chemical finishes.

Sticky Cotton: Cotton that sticks to roller surfaces, especially at a card or drawframe, causing difficulties in processing or even making the material impossible to process without special precautions. Causes of cotton fibre stickiness range from contamination with cotton seed oil or the pesticides and defoliants used during cotton growing, to the presence of bacteria and fungi or of different types of sugars. The best known cause of sticky cotton is honeydew.

Stippled: A method of producing a shading or watercolor effect by applying color to the fabric in small dots during printing. The degree of shading is determined by the size and frequency of the dots.

Stitch Holding (shaping): A method of shaping a knitted product by changing the number of loops in individual wales by continuing to knit on certain needles whilst knitting is stopped and the stitches held on other needles for a given number of courses. It is possible to start to knit again and join the held stitches into a continuation of the fabric.

Stitch Length (knitting): The length of yarn in a knitted loop.

Stitch Shaped: A garment shaped wholly or partially by change of stitch length, or structure, or both.

Stitch Transfer: A method of shaping a garment panel on a flat knitting machine by transferring selvedge loops from one needle bed to the other in a sequence designed to increase or decrease the width of the fabric over a given number of courses. Shetland (1) original usage: A yarn spun by hand in the shetland islands from the wool of sheep bred and reared in these islands. (2) common usage: A yam, spun on the woollen system from 100% new wool, of a quality capable of imparting to a fabric the handle attributed to the products formerly made exclusively from the shetland breed of sheep. (3) current trade usage: (as recognised by the international wool textile organisation) where the term shetland is qualified by the adjective 'genuine', 'pure', 'real', or any similar description, implies that the wool actually originated in the shetland islands.

Stock: High-stiffened collar, covered with linen or black satin and fastened at the back of the neck by strings or stock buckles. A piece of material simulating a cravat was often sewn onto the front of the stock. First introduced as military costume at the beginning of the 18th century, and highly fashionable for the rest of that century.

Stock dyed: Refers to the dyeing of staple fiber before it is spun into yarn. A common method for woolen fabrics.

Stockinette: A term sometimes used for soft, plain stitch, knit jersey used for underwear & other apparel.

Stomacher: In female garments a v-shaped section at the front of a boned, stiffened under bodice. The stomacher filled in the upper part of the gown.

Stonewashed: A process of washing the fabric with pebbles to alter the hand and produce fading of the color.

Storm Shell: Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.

Stoving: Bleaching of wool, silk, hair, or other proteinaceous materials in a moist condition with sulphur dioxide in an enclosed chamber. (wet stoving is the treatment of a material with a solution of a sulphite or bisulphite.)

Strained Weft: (see split weft).

Strand: A single two-fold or multi-fold yarn used as a component of a folded or cabled construction. (2) linear textile material generally.

Straw, yarn: Extruded monofilament yarns that have the cross-section and appearance of natural straw.

Stretch 2 Way: Refers to a woven or knit fabric with elastic properties in both directions, usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch Fabric: A fabric characterized by a capacity for stretch and recovery from stretch. Note: The term is used for materials with greater extension and recovery properties than traditional woven or knitted structures from conventional yarns and implies the use of stretch yarns, elastomeric threads, or finishing treatments. Such fabrics may have different degrees of extensibility and recovery specified for particular uses.

Stretch in Warp: Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the warp direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the warp.

Stretch in Weft: Refers to a woven fabric with elastic properties in the weft ( filling) direction only, usually the result of using spandex yarn in the weft.

Stretch Knit: Refers to any knit fabric with elastic properties usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch Lace: Refers to a lace fabric with elastic properties, usually the result of using spandex yarn.

Stretch Spinning: A process of spinning whereby the filaments are substantially stretched at some stage between spinning (extrusion) and collection. The term is applied specifically to a process involving substantial stretch in order to provide high-tenacity yam.

Stretch Yarns: Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades, crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity and comfort.

Striated: Refers to fabric purposely given a narrow, linear, streaked color effect.

Strick: A small bunch of flax straws of scutched flax, or hackled flax, of a size that can be held in the hand. Note: In the jute section of the textile industry, the corresponding term is strike which refers to a bunch of jute similar to a 'head' but smaller, usually 1 to 2 kg.

Stripe: A design dominated by lines or bands of contrasting color or texture.

Stripping: Destroying or removing dye or finish from a fibre.

Strusa: See frisons.

Stuffer Box: A crimping device consisting of a confined space into which a tow, a converted tow, a sliver, a yarn or a similar assembly of filaments or fibres is injected by feed rollers or other means such as a fluid jet and in which the fibre assembly is packed and compressed so that the individual filaments or fibres buckle and fold.

S-twist: See twist direction.

Sublimation printing: A form of transfer printing employing dyes that sublime readily and have substantivity for the substrate to which they are applied.

Sublimation printing: A form of transfer printing (q.v.) that uses dyes that sublimate readily and have substantivity (q.v.) for the substrate to which they are applied.

Substantivity: The attraction, under the precise conditions of test, between a substrate and a dye (or Other substance) where the latter is selectively extracted from the application medium by the substrate.

Substantivity: The attraction between a substrate and a dye or other substance under the precise conditions of test whereby the latter is selectively extracted from the application medium by the substrate.

Substrate: Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.

Suede cloth/faux suede: A fabric with a short nap and a soft finish that suggests animal suede.

Sueded: Having a hand that suggests the soft supple feel of real suede leather.

Suint: Excretion from sweat glands of sheep, which is deposited on wool fibres.

Suithana: Pajama like garment, worn mostly by women; wide at top and comfortably roomy around the legs and ankles. Possibly from sanskrit svasthana, mentioned in the harshacharita.

Sulphur Dye: A water-insoluble dye, containing sulphur both as an integral part of the chromophore and in attached polysulphide chains, normally applied in the alkaline soluble reduced (ieuco) form from a sodium sulphide solution and subsequently oxidized to the insoluble form in the fibre.

Sunn: A bast fibre obtained from the plant crotolaria juncea.

Superfine Wool: A general term for the best and finest quality of wool with a diameter of 15-18 microns.

Super Light Weight: Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.

Supple: Having a soft, flexible, luxurious hand.

Supplex Brand: A du pont brand of filament nylon fiber.

Surah: A soft twill fabric of silk or synthetic filament fiber. Used for scarves, ties, blouses.

Surah: A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.

Suralisurwal: A breeches-like garment for the lower part of the body, tight around the legs. Worn mostly in nepal and contiguous areas.

Surface Decoration: Ornamenting the surface of a fabric or garment (e.g. Embroidery etc.)

Surfactant: An agent, soluble or dispersible in a liquid, which reduces the surface tension of the liquid. (a contraction of 'surface-active agent'.)

Suri: See alpaca fibre.

Swatch; sample swatch: Fabric for display, test, or record purposes, in the form of a single sample or an assembly of small samples, the latter being sometimes called a bunch.

Swealing: migration of dye into the angles of folds and creases during fabric drying. (2) partial transfer of colour, dirt or grease into the surrounding fabric, caused by unsatisfactory removal of stains by hand from a fabric when using an aqueous or solvent treatment.

Swell ratio: In man-made fibre extrusion, the ratio of the maximum diameter of the extrudate as the solution or melt emerges from the spinneret to the orifice diameter. It is sometimes known as die swell.

Swelling Agent: A substance that causes the total liquid imbibition of a fibre to increase. Note: A swelling agent may be used in a dyebath or a printing paste to promote coloration by accelerating the diffusion of dyes into a fibre.

Syndet: A detergent that is not a soap. (a contraction of synthetic detergent)

Syndiotactic Polymer: A linear polymer containing asymmetrically-substituted carbon atoms in the repeating unit of the main chain, a planar projection of whose structure has the same substituents situated alternately on either side of the main chain

Syntan: A name for synthetic tanning agents.

Synthetic Fibre: Man-made staple fibres or filaments produced from polymers derived from chemical elements or compounds as opposed to those made by man from naturally occurring fibre-forming polymers.

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