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Letter F - Textile Dictionary

Letter F
F

Fabric: A manufactured assembly of fibres or yarns (or both) that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness, and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion. Note: fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted, but the term also applies to assemblies produced by lace-making, tufting, felting, net-making and non-woven processes.

Fabric (textile): A manufactured assembly of fibres and/or yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion. , note: fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted, but the term includes assemblies produced by lace-making, tufting, felting, net-making, and the so-called nonwoven processes.

Fabric length: Unless otherwise specified, the usable length of a piece between any truth marks, piece-ends, or numbering, when the fabric is measured laid flat on a table in the absence of tension.

Fabric width: Unless otherwise specified, the distance from edge to edge of a fabric when laid flat on a table without tension. In the case of commercial dispute the measurement should be made after the fabric has been conditioned in a standard atmosphere for testing . When buying and selling fabric it is normal to specify the basis on which the width is to be assessed e.g., Overall, within limits, or usable width (which implies within stenter pin marks).

Face: The side of a fabric that is intended to be used outermost.

Face finished fabrics: Fabrics which have surface treatments that provide a variety of looks and effects on the fabric surface. These include brushing, sanding, sueding, etc. The warp knit industry is specially innovative with face finishing techniques. The term also applies to more traditional fabrics such as meltons, jerseys, and overcoatings that have been finished only on the face.

Face-finished (fabric): Descriptive of a finish, for example, to wool fabrics, in which the face side is treated selectively, as in raising.

Face-to-face carpets: Carpets manufactured as a sandwich in which the pile is attached alternately to two substrates: two cut pile carpets are made by cutting the pile yarns between the two substrates.

Facing Silk: A fine lustrous fabric of silk (usually of corded satin, twill weave, or barathea) used for facing, e.g., Lapels in men's evening wear. (fabrics of other fibres are used for facing purposes but are not properly described as 'facing silk'.)

Facings: Edging of fine fur or rich cloth, these trimmings were purely for decoration. During the course of time the meaning changed towards the contemporary meaning of today, the term was extended to cover all the reveres of the body or sleeves of a garment.

Faconne: A fabric with small scattered motifs usually jacquard but sometimes burn out.

Faonn (faconne): The french word for 'figured'. It is used in relation to textiles to describe jacquard fabrics with a pattern of small scattered figures.

Fad: Short lived fashion are called fad's; they seldom have any lasting impact on future fashion. They are briefly and suddenly seen everywhere and just as suddenly they vanish.

Fade: In fastness testing, any change in the colour of an object caused by light or contaminants in the atmosphere, e.g., Burnt-gas fumes., Note: The change in colour may be in hue, depth or brightness or any combination of these., (2) colloquially, a reduction in the depth of colour of an object, irrespective of cause.: Fallers, (1) straight, pinned bars employed in the control of fibres between drafting rollers., (2) curved arms fixed to two shafts on a mule carriage and carrying the faller wires.

Faggoting: A openwork stripe effect with connecting threads across the open area that create a ladder effect.

Faille: A plain weave fabric characterized by a narrow, crosswise rib which is usually the result of a fine warp yarn crossed with a heavier weft yarn. Most commonly made with filament yarns but can be from a variety of fibers and weights. It usually has a soft hand and a light luster with good body and drape.

Faille: A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers.

Falling Bands: Also known as rabat and hanging collars; linen or lace collars (or combined) with two distinct ends hanging down over the chest. The forerunner of the cravat in the 17th century. They were worn by both men and women.

False-Twist Direction: The direction, s or z, of twist generated by a false-twisting device.

False Twist: Turns inserted in opposite directions and in equal numbers in adjacent elements of yarn, silver (q.v.) or similar aggregations of fibres or filaments, and that are characterised by their temporary nature. Note: false twist may be used as follows:
A) to produce effects, e.g.
1. the entanglement of fibres while false-twisted;
2. a measure of permanence to the twisted form by heat-setting the false-twisted yarns.
B) to assist processing, e.g.
1. the passage of sliver from "noble" comb to can;
2. the attenuation of rovings (q.v.) on a condenser ring frame.

False-twisting: A twisting operation applied at an intermediate position on a yarn or other similar continuous assembly of fibres, so that no net twist can be inserted, as distinct from twisting at the end of a yarn where real twist is inserted., Note: real twisting necessarily involves either rotation of a yam end, as in uptwisting or downtwisting (see ring twisting), or the repeated passage of a thread loop around an end, as two-for-one~twisting. In false-twisting, a yarn normally runs continuously over or through a false-twisting device which may act at either a constant or varying rate. When the twisting rate is constant and equilibrium has been established, the yarn passes through a zone of added twist then, on leaving the twisting device, returns to its original twist level. The added (false) twist level is equal to the ratio of the rotational and axial speeds of the yarn. Equilibrium false-twisting is utilized in one method of yarn texturing where thermal setting is carried out in the zone of temporary twist; it is also used to provide temporary cohesion and thus strength in some staple-fibre processing systems. (see also pin-twisting and friction-twisting.) The self-twist (repco) process is an example of the use of a varying false-twisting rate. Static elements such yarn guides may, in certain circumstances, generate either equilibrium or varying false-twist in running yarns.

False-twist-textured yarn: A continuous process in which a yarn is highly twisted, heat-set and untwisted. In an infrequently used alternative method, two yarns are continuously folded together, heat-set, then separated by unfolding.

Fancy Yarn: A yarn that differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities relate to an increased input of one or more of its components or to the inclusion of periodic effects such as knots, loops, curls, slubs or the like.

Fargul: A kind of jacket.

Farji: A kind of jacket. Defined by the dictionaries as simply 'a kind of garment', the farji was possibly a long over-garment without sleeves, or with very short sleeves, open in front and worn like a coat over pyjama (q.v.) Or angarakha (q.v.).

Farshi pyjama: wide-legged pyjama (q. V) that trails on the ground, sometimes completely covering the feet; worn often with a kurta (q.v.) Or angarakha (q.v.).

Fasciated Yarn: A staple fibre yarn that by virtue of is manufacturing technique consists of a core of essentially parallel fibres bound together by wrapper fibres. The current technique of manufacture is often referred to as jet spinning.

Fashion forecast: To predict of foretell future fashion tread for a specific period of time.

Fashioned (weft knitting): See shaping.

Fastness: The property of resistance to an agency named (e.g., Washing, light, rubbing, crocking, gas-fumes)., Note: on the standard scale, five grades are usually recognized, from 5, signifying unaffected, to 1, grossly changed. For lightfastness, eight grades are used, 8 representing the highest degree of fastness.

Fastness: The property of resistance to the agency named (e.g. to washing, light, rubbing, crocking, gas fumes, etc.).

Fatuhi: A 'jacket without sleeves'. Generally understood as a vest lightly padded with cotton wool, and quilted.

Faux Fur: A pile fabric made to simulate animal fur. May be woven or knit in a variety of fibers although acrylic and modacrylic are most common.

Faux Leather: A fabric made to imitate animal leather . Often a polyurethane laminate.

Faux Linen: A fabric made with slubbed yarns to imitate linen. Usually inexpensive, easy care fabrics.

Faux Shearling: Fabrics made to imitate shearling- the pelt of a sheep with the wool in place.

Faux Silk: A fabric of manufactured fiber, most commonly polyester , with good drape, luster and a soft hand to imitate silk.

Faux suede: See suede cloth/faux suede.

Faz-vi: A 'jacket without sleeves'. Possibly the same kind of garment as fatuhi (q.v.).

Feed roller; feed roll: A roller that forwards a yarn to a subsequent processing or take-up stage.

Fell (of the fabric): The line of termination of the fabric in the loom, i.e. the line formed by the last weft thread.

Fellmongering: The process of pulling wool from sheep skins. (see also skin wool.): Felt, a textile fabric characterized by the entangled condition of most, or all, of the fibres of which it is composed. Three classes of felt can be distinguished:, (a) fabrics with a woven or knitted structure;, (b) pressed felt, which is formed from a web or batt containing animal hair or wool consolidated by the application of heat and mechanical action that causes the constituent fibres to mat together;, (c) needlefelt.

Felt: From the anglo-saxon word meaning to filt or filter, the cloth is a matted, compact woolen material, of which melton might be cited as an example. A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibers, where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.

Felt: A nonwoven fabric made directly from fibers bound together with heat, moisture and mechanical pressure . Usually some wool or animal hair is used. 2. A woven fabric that has been subjected to a heavy fulling process which compresses and shrinks the fabric through heat and pressure hiding the weave and entangling the fibers.

Felting: The matting together of fibres during processing or wear (see milling (fabric finishing)).

Fiber: The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.

Fiberfill: Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear.

Fiberfill: Fiber batting used as a backing in a quilted fabric or in a sandwich with other fabrics. Used in outerwear, bedspreads.

Fibre: A unit of matter characterised by flexibility, fineness and a high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibre: (1) Textile raw material generally., (2) a unit of matter characterized by flexibility, fineness, and high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibre (flax): Flax cultivated mainly for fibre production as distinct from that cultivated for linseed-oil production.

Fibre extent: See fibre length.

Fibre length: (a) crimped length, the distance between the ends of a fibre when substantially freed from external restraint, measured with respect to its general axis of orientation., (b) fibre extent, the distance between two planes which just enclose a fibre without intercepting it, each plane being perpendicular to the direction of the yarn or other assembly of which the fibre forms a part., (c) staple length, a quantity by which a sample of fibrous raw material is characterized as regards its technically most important fibre length., Note: The staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of the longer fibres in a hand prepared tuft or 'staple' in its naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). With cotton, on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres when measured in a straightened condition., (d) span length, the extent exceeded by a stated proportion of cotton fibres, e.g., 2.5% span length is the length exceeded by only 2.5% of fibres by number.

Fibre Length: a) Crimpled length, the extent (see (b) below) of crimped fibre substantially freed from external restraint, and measured with respect to its general axis of orientation. 
B) fibre extent, the distance in a given direction between two planes (each perpendicular to the given direction) that just enclose the fibre without intersecting it. Note: 1. If the fibre is in a sliver (q.v.) (or yarn, roving, etc.) and the direction of the extent is not specified, the "given direction" is to be taken as the axis of the sliver.
2. It should be noted that the extent of a fibre is a variable property that differs from the straightened length of the fibre according to circumstances; thus in a card web, the example, where the fibres are in a state of considerable disarray, the extent of a fibre after it has been passed through one or more drawing processes. If, for any reason, a fibre is subject to a stretching force, its extent in the direction of the force may be greater than its straightened length.
C) staple length, a measurement by which a sample of fibrous raw material is characterised according to its technically most important fibre length. Note: The staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of the longer fibres in a hand-prepared tuft or "staple" in its naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). In cotton, on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres when measured in a straightened condition.

Fibre Ultimate: One of the unit botanical cells into which leaf and bast fibres can be disintegrated.

Fibre, man-made: A fibre manufactured by man as distinct from a fibre that occurs naturally.

Fibre, regenerated: A man-made fibre produced from a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer by a process that includes regeneration of the original polymer structure.

Fibre, synthetic: A man-made fibre produced from a polymer built up by man from chemical elements or compounds, in contrast to fibres made by man from naturally occurring fibre-forming polymers.

Fibrid: A netted filamentary or fibrillar structure, substantially longer in one dimension than in the other two that exhibits a capacity for mechanical entanglement with other structures and much higher water-holding capacity than fibres produced by conventional spinning means. Fibrids are used as bonding elements in the production of wet-laid synthetic papers.

Fibrillae: Specks visible on the surface of silk yarns.

Fibrillated: A finish which causes tiny fibrils or fibrous elements to be spilt from the fibers and protrude from the surface of the fabric. Results in a frosted, hazy, laundered appearance and a soft hand. Common on lyocell fabrics.

Fibrillated yarn: A yarn produced by the process of fibrillation.

Fibrillated-film fibre: Staple fibre produced by cutting, chopping or stretch-breaking fibrillated yarn or fibrillated film tow.

Fibrillated-film tow: An assembly of fibrillated textile films.

Fibrillated-film yarn: Yarn produced from fibrillating film that has been converted into a longitudinally fibrillated structure (cf. Polymer tape).

Fibrillating Film: A polymer film in which molecule orientation has been induced by stretching to such a degree that it is capable of being converted into yarn or twine by manipulation, e.g., By twisting under tension which results in the formation of a longitudinally split structure (split fibre).

Fibrillating Roller: A pinned roller used for fibrillation.

Fibrillation: The process of splitting a longitudinally oriented textile film or tape into a network interconnected fibres., Note: processes for producing fibrillation may be divided into two groups:, (a) those producing random splitting to give a relatively coarse network, e.g., Twisting, and, (b) those producing controlled splitting to give a relatively fine network e.g., By rapidly rotating pinned rollers.

Fibroin: The part of a silk thread remaining after the gum has been discharged.

Fichu: Large neckerchief at the end of the 18th century that was worn around the neck and shoulders together with the robe l'anglaise.

Figue: A fibre from the leaf of the plant furcraea macrophylla.

Figured Velvet: A velvet fabric with a design in relief created by cutting or pressing of the pile.

Filament: A fibre of indefinite length.

Filament: A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber production process.

Filament: A fibre of indefinite length.

Filament blend yarn: A filament yarn which contains separate filaments of two distinct types, the filaments being more or less randomly blended over the cross-section of the yarn.

Filament yarn: A yam composed of one or more filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yams of one or more filaments are usually referred to as monofilament or multifilament respectively.

Filamentation: A fibrous or hairy appearance due to broken filaments on the surface of a yarn package or fabric.

Filamentation: Damage to multi-filament yarns that results in broken filaments.

Filament yarn: A yarn composed of one or more filaments (q.v.) that run the whole length of the yarn.
Note: yarns of one filament and yarns of several filaments are referred to as mono-filament and multi-filament, respectively.

Filler (usa): A synonym, used in north America, for weft yams.

Filler fabric: A rubber-coated cross-woven fabric which is placed around the bead section assembly of a tyre and serves to reinforce the join between apex and casing plies. (in all-metallic radial-ply tyres this filler often consists of a ply of wire cords).

Filling: Non-substantive and generally insoluble materials, such as china clay, gypsum, etc., Added to fabrics together with starches or gums during finishing to add weight or to modify their appearance and handle., Note 1: this term is usually applied only to cellulosic textiles (see also loading). Finishes in which starches or gums are used without the addition of insoluble materials are sometimes referred to as 'fillings' but are more correctly described as 'assisted finishes'., Note 2..the equivalent term in north America is 'filler'., (2) a synonym, used in north America, for weft yams (see weft)., (3) see wadding thread.

Filling: In a woven fabric, the yarn running from selvage to selvage at right angles to the warp. Each crosswise length is called a pick. In the weaving process, the filling yarn is carried by the shuttle or other type of yarn carrier.

Findings: Any extra items attached to a garment during the manufacturing process. This can include trims, buttons, hooks, snaps, or embellishments.

Finish (n) (finishing): Terms used broadly, as follows, to include added materials, the process employed (finishing) and the final result: a) a substance or a mixture of substances added to textile materials at any stage to impart desired properties.
B) the type of process, physical or chemical, applied to produce a desired effect.
C) such properties, for example smoothness, drape, lustre, or crease resistance, produced by (a) or (b) above (or both).
D) the state of the textile material as it leaves a previous processor.
Note: The mechanical operations of spinning, weaving and knitting, though they may largely determine the result, are excluded.

Finish (v): To apply or produce a finish.

Finish: A term used broadly in the paint, paper, printing ink, leather, plastics and textile industries to include the added materials, the finishing processes employed, and the final result., (1) a substance or mixture of substances added to a substrate at any stage in the process to impart desired properties., (2) the type of process, physical or chemical, applied to a substrate to produce a desired effect., (3) such properties, e.g., Smoothness, drape, lustre, gloss or crease resistance produced by (1) and/or (2) above., (4) the state of the substrate as it leaves a previous process., (5) the quality or appearance of a paint or printing-ink film., (6) to apply or produce a finish.

Finish: Perfection with which the garment / fabric is completed.

Finished fabric: A fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes, and is ready to be used in the manufacturing of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.
Finishing: All processes through which a fabric passes after manufacturing in preparation for the market. These include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.

Fireproof (v): To render a textile incapable of supporting rapid combustion.

Firm: Refers to a fabric with a relatively solid, compact texture, good body and reduced drape.

Fishnet: A wide, coarse, relatively heavy mesh used in apparel and trimming.

Fixation Accelerator: A product added to a finishing formulation to speed up, or lower the temperature required for, chemical reaction.

Flameproof (v): To render a textile incapable of propagating flame beyond the edges of a charred area produced by the application of a specific test flame.

Flame resistant: Refers to a fabric which will burn only when the source of the flame remains lit, and will quickly self extinguish when the source is removed. Standards for flame resistance are generally set according to the end use of the fabric. Flame resistance may be the result of the nature of the fiber or of a chemical finish put on the fabric.

Flame Resistant: Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.

Flame Retardant: A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability.

Flame Stitch: A zig zag design that suggests a flame.

Flannel: A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool. The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flannel: An all-wool fabric of plain or twill weave with a soft handle. It may be slightly milled and raised.

Flannel: A light to medium weight woven fabric with a soft, slightly napped surface . Expensive flannels of wool and wool blends are usually napped and fulled whereas less expensive flannels of cotton and other fibers are usually just napped.

Flannelette: A fabric made from cotton warp and soft-spun cotton weft, the fabric being subsequently raised on both sides to give an imitation of the true woollen flannel. The weave may be plain, plain with double-end warp, or twill., Note 1: it may be woven grey and dyed or printed, or it may be woven from dyed yarns., Note 2.. Fibres other than cotton are sometimes present in the weft yarn. If these exceed 7% they are named in the description, e.g., Cotton-rayon flannelette.

Flannelette: A lightweight fabric usually of cotton with a nap on one side.

Flannelette: A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a soft hand, usually made from cotton. The fabric is usually brushed only on one side, and is lighter weight than flannel. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flash Curing: See curing.

Flash Spinning: A modification of the accepted dry-spinning method in which a solution of a polymer is extruded at a temperature well above the boiling point of the solvent such that on emerging from the spinneret evaporation occurs so rapidly that the individual filaments are disrupted into a highly fibrillar form.

Flash-Spun Fabric: A nonwoven formed from the fine fibrillation of a film by the rapid evaporation of solvent and subsequent bonding during extrusion.

Flat Fabric: A two-dimensional woven or knitted fabric that has no pile loops.

Flat Knitting Machine: A weft-knitting machine having straight needle beds carrying independently operated latch needles., Note 1: rib machines (v-type) have two needle beds, which are opposed to each other in inverted-v formation., Note 2: purl machines have two needle beds horizontally opposed in the same plane.

Flat Metal Yarn: A yarn consisting of one or more continuous lengths of metal strip or incorporating one or more continuous length(s) as a major component., Note1: A notable example is a singles metal yarn in banknotes, which may be o.50mm (0.020in.) Wide and 0.08 mm (0.003 in.) Thick. For this purpose, it must be without twist, i.e., Flat throughout its length in the banknote. Analysis of the metal is proof of the authenticity of a banknote., Note2: twist inserted in flat metal yarns may form irregular facets, which reflect light accordingly to give decorative effects in fabrics

Flat Screen Printed: In screen printing a separate screen is created for each color . The open mesh part of the screen corresponds to the area to be printed in that color. The areas where color is not to pass through are blocked. Dye paste is forced through the open mesh area with a squeegee. The fabric is then moved or the screen replaced to allow printing of the next color. In flat screen printing the screens are in the form of flat panels, the width of which is the same as the repeat of the pattern. Flat screen printing allows for greater flexibility than rotary printing as the panel size can often be adjusted to various repeat sizes.

Flat Setting: The setting of fabric at open-width. The term is particularly used in the finishing of woven wool fabrics, where setting is usually effected by steaming under pressure.

Flat Yarn: Descriptive of full drawn continuous-filament yarns substantially without twist and untextured (see also twistless yarn.), (2) a synonym for straw.

Flat Yarn: A multi-filament yarn with no twist. Note: The term is still used in respect of these yarns after a small amount of twist has been introduced by subsequent processing, e.g. as in over-end winding.

Flax: The plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained. Linen is used in apparel, accessories, draperies, upholstery, tablecloths, and towels.

Flax: (1) Plants of the species linum usitatissimum cultivated for the production of fibre, or seed and fibre., (2) fibre extracted from flax plants.

Flax Fibre Bundle: One of the aggregates of ultimate fibre that run from the base of the stem up to the top of the branches of flax straw. They are each composed of large numbers of ultimate fibres overlapping each other.

Flax fibre strands: Flax fibres after removal from the plant, consisting in the cross-section of more than one ultimate fibre.

Flax Tow: Short flax fibres that are removed during the scutching or hackling processes:, (a) rug tow: short flax fibre removed during scutching and containing extraneous woody material;, (b) re-scutched tow: short fibre which has been cleaned in a tow-scutching apparatus, (c) machine tow: short fibre which has been removed from scutched long flax during the hackling process.

Flax Yarn Bundle: The standard length by which wet-spun flax yarns are bought and sold. The 'bundle' traditionally contained 60000 yards (about 55000 m) of yarn.

Flax, green (obsolescent): Scutched flax produced from deseeded straw without any intermediate treatment such as retting.

Flax, line (obsolescent): Hackled flax.

Flax-spun: A term applied to staple yam that has been prepared and spun on machinery originally designed for spinning yarns from flax.

Fleece: A fabric with a thick, soft nap or pile resembling sheep's wool. Commonly a knit which has been brushed and sheared but may be woven.

Fleece: The woolly covering of a sheep or similar animal.

Fleece: The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.

Fleece Fabric: A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, or either woven or knit construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics are available in a variety of constuctions: 1) polarfleece® is the original fleece fabric, developed in 1979, by malden mills. It is typically used for non-technical garments, and it is only available at malden mills®; 2) polartec®, also developed by malden mills, was created for today's high-performance technical garments, which provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.

Fleece Wool: Any wool as shorn from a living sheep. The term is in use to distinguish this wool from other forms such as skin wool.

Fleecy: Resembling a wool fleece in appearance and handle, or descriptive of fabrics having a fine, soft, open, and raised structure.

Fleecy Fabric (weft-knitted): A weft-knitted fabric composed of three separate yarns; a ground yarn of normal count, a finer binding yarn, and a thicker fleecy yarn which is held into the fabric at close intervals by the binding yarn. The fleecy yarn appears on the back of plain-knitted fabric and presents an ideal surface for brushing or raising.

Flexibility: The extent of the ability of a textile to be flexed repeatedly without being ruptured.

Float (weaving): A length of yarn on the surface of a woven fabric between two consecutive intersections of the yarn with the yarns woven at right angles to it. Note: A float is designated by the number of threads over or under which the floating yarn passes.

Flock: A material obtained by reducing textile fibres to fragments as by cutting, tearing, or grinding. There are two main usages:, (a) stuffing flock: fibres in entangled small masses or beads, usually of irregular broken fibres, obtained as a by-product, as, for example, in the milling, cropping, or raising of wool fabric, and mainly used for stuffing, padding, or upholstery., (b) coating flock: cut or ground fibres used for application to yarn, fabric, paper, wood, metal, or wall surfaces prepared with an adhesive (see also electrostatic flocking).

Flocking: A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibers are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or electrostatic charges. The fibers adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied, and the excess fibers are removed by mechanical means.

Flock printed: A method of printing resulting in short fibers, rather than color, being applied in a design to the surface of the fabric . The fabric may be printed with an adhesive and the fiber dusted onto it, or the fibers may be contained in the adhesive, or the fibers may be applied electrostatically to hold them erect.

Flock printing: A method of fabric ornamentation in which adhesive is printed on and then finely chopped fibres are applied all over by means of dusting-on, an air-blast, or electrostatic attraction. The fibres adhere only to the printed areas and are removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.

Flocked: A method of applying short fibers rather than color to the entire surface of the fabric . The fabric may be printed with an adhesive and the fiber dusted, onto it ,or the fibers may be contained in the adhesive or the fibers may be applied electrostatically to hold them erect.

Flocked carpets: Carpets manufactured by applying short chopped lengths of fibre (flock) to an adhesive-coated backing fabric. The application is usually carried out electrostatically.

Flocks (wool): Waste fibres obtained from wool during the different finishing processes.

Floral: Refers to design motifs dominated by flowers.

Flounce: A band of cloth or lace fluting around a garment to which it is attached only by its upper edge.

Fluff: Lint or fluff that has accumulated on a knitting machine and become incorporated in the fabric.

Fluff ball: See lint ball.

Fluidity: A measure of the ease with which a fluid flows; numerically the reciprocal of viscosity. The unit of fluidity is the reciprocal pascal second (pa-1 s-1)., Note: The fluidity of dilute solutions of polymers is inversely related to the polymer molecular weight and, for certain fibre-solvent systems, may be used as an indicator of polymer degradation.

Fluorescent Brightener: A substance that is added to a textile (uncoloured or coloured) to increase the apparent light reflectance in the visible region by the conversion of ultraviolet radiation into visible light and so to increase the apparent brightness or whiteness of the textile.

Fluorescent brightener: See optical brightener.

Fluorescent whitening agent: See optical brightener.

Fluorofibre (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of linear macromolecules made from fluorocarbon aliphatic monomers.

Fly: Fibres that fly out into the atmosphere during processing.

Fly: Waste fibres which fly out into the atmosphere during carding, drawing, spinning and other processes.

Flyer Spinning: A spinning system in which yarn passes through a revolving flyer leg guide on to the package. The yarn is wound-on by making the flyer and spinning package rotate at slightly different speeds

Flyshot Loom: A multi-piece loom for weaving narrow fabrics in which each shuttle is knocked through the open shed by means of a peg fixed in a slide. The term is also sometimes applied to single-head narrow-fabric looms.

Foam Bonding: A method of making nonwoven fabrics in which a fibre web or batt is treated by the application of a liquid in the form of a foam.

Foam Laminated: A layer of foam usually polyurethane, pvc or latex is bonded to the fabric with adhesive or fused to the fabric with heat. Generally results in a "breathable" fabric. Used for footwear , outerwear and carpet backings.

Foambacked Fabric: A combined fabric usually having two layers, one of which is of cellular plastics material.

Fold: See folded yarn.

Folded Yarn: A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together (fold) in one operation, e.g., Two-fold yarn, three-fold yarn, etc., Note: in some sections of the textile industry, e.g., The marketing of hand-knitting yams, these yarns are referred to as two-ply, three-ply, etc.

Folk Weave: A term applied to any construction which, when used in loosely woven fabrics made from coarse yams, gives a rough and irregular surface effect. Coloured yarns are commonly used to produce weftway and/or warpway stripes.

Fontange: A bow on a ladies' headdress worn in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, named after the duchesse de fontanges. The term is often incorrectly applied to the whole headdress.

Forehead cloth or cross cloth: 16th and 17th century term for a band covering the front of a woman's head. It was often triangular.

Forte of a garment: Means the strong point of the garment.

Foulard: See padding mangle.

Foulard: 1. A lightweight, lustrous, soft 2x2 twill fabric usually found printed . Used in neckties scarves dresses. 2. Small all over geometric print design usually on a plain solid ground typical of those found on neckties.

Frayed Weft: A weft yarn with broken filaments resulting from abrasion during weft insertion, winding or excessive tension.

French Terry: A knit jersey with loops on one side. Sometimes napped to make fleece.

Frey: Threads which come out from the fabric during handling.

Friction Calendering: The process of passing fabric through a calender in which a highly polished, usually heated steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed than the softer (e.g. cotton-filled or paper-filled) bowl against which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contact with the steel bowl. Note: The friction ratio is the ratio between the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl and that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 11⁄2:1 to 3:1.

Friction Spinning: A method of open-end spinning which uses the external surface of two rotating rollers to collect and twist individual fibres into a yarn. At least one of the rollers is perforated so that air can be drawn through its surface to facilitate fibre collection. The twisting occurs near the nip of the rollers and, because of the relatively large difference between the yam and roller diameters, high yarn rotational speeds are achieved by the friction between the roller surface and the yarns.

Friction-Twisting: The generation of false-twist ( see false-twisting) by a device in which the yarn lies in contact with one or more surfaces of high friction driven in a direction at substantial angle to the yarn axis. In practice, friction disks, belts or bushes are commonly used

Frieze: A pile fabric with the loops left uncut . Usually the loops are sheared to various heights to form a pattern. Used widely for upholstery and slipcovers.

Fringe: a) An edging or border of loose threads, tassels or loops. Note: The edging or border may be produced by the constituent threads or by threads added to a fabric after weaving or knitting.
b) a trimming (narrow fabric) that has, on one or both edges, cut or looped weft threads that form a decorative edge, and that are sometimes bunched or knotted together to increase the decorative effect. Note:1. Tassels, balls or other adornments may be added.
2. The part of the fringe comprising both warp and weft is known as the heading.
3. The part of the fringe containing only weft is known as the skirt.

Frisons: The first waste obtained in the process of reeling silk cocoons. It is composed of the tangled beginning of the silk filament that is removed by the reeler up to the point when the filament begins to reel properly.

Fore-runner: A length of fabric used in processing to lead a piece of fabric through the equipment and so enable the piece to be processed from end to end, with minimum wastage.

Foulard: A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.

Four-way stretch: A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. It is the same as two-way stretch.

Fugitive tint: A colorant for application to textile materials for their identification during handling. The colorant must be removed easily during normal textile scouring or dyeing procedures.

Fuji: A lightweight, plain weave fabric originally of silk but now usually of polyester bi-component yarn which gives the appearance of a subtle texture on the surface . Used in blouses, dresses.

Fujiette: A medium weight fabric with a filament yarn warp and a spun yarn weft . Usually it has a fine crosswise rib. Commonly found in rayon and blends of acetate and rayon . Used in blouses, dresses.

Fulled: See milled/fulled.

Full-fashioned; fully-fashioned: Terms applied to knitted fabrics and garments that are shaped wholly or in part by widening and/or narrowing by loop transference to increase or decrease the number of wales.
Fungicide: Kills fungi.

Fungistat: Inhibits fungal growth.

Fusibles: Refers to a fabric, usually a nonwoven, that can be bonded to another fabric with heat and pressure. Used as interlinings to give body and shape to a fabric.

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