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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, G - Textile Dictionary

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Letter G 

Gabardine: A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is known as a year-round fabric for business suiting. Polyester, cotton, rayon, and various blends are also used in making gabardine. 

Gabardine: A tightly woven durable twill, usually 2x2 right handed, with a distinct twill line. Common used in men's and women's trousers, rainwear and a variety of other uses. 

Gait (flax): A large handful of loose, pulled flax, stood up on end in a cone form to dry. 

Gait (lace machines): The distance between the centres of adjacent comb blades., (2) a measure of the distance over which a thread is moved. 

Gait (weaving): A full repeat of the draft in the healds, or in the case of jacquard, in one complete row of the harness. 

Gait; gait up (weaving): General terms used to describe the positioning of the warp, healds, and reed in a loom, in readiness for weaving. Where drop wires are mounted on the warp during warp preparation, gaiting also includes the positioning of the drop wires. 

Gaiting (knitting): See gating (knitting). 

Galants or Gallants: Small ribbon bows which were worn in the mid 17th century in the hair and attached to the garments in various places. 

Galatea: A durable, warp faced, left handed twill fabric often found in white and stripes. Used in children's wear, uniforms. 

Galloon: Lace. 

Gamla Buti: A popular motif in textile design in india, consisting of flowers of different kinds growing in a flowerpot, neatly arranged. 

Gamma value: The mean number of xanthate groups per 100 glucose residues in cellulose xanthate. 

Garters: Ribbon tied around the leg to hold up the stockings. 

Gas: See singe. 

Gas Fume Fading: An irreversible change in hue which occurs when textiles, particularly cellulose ethanoate ( acetate) and triethanoate (triacetate) dyed with certain blue anthraquinone disperse dyes are exposed to oxides of nitrogen which arise from, for example, gas or storage heaters. 

Gassed Yarn: A yarn that has been passed through a flame or over a heated element to remove surface fibres. 

Gating (knitting): The relative alignment of 2 sets of knitting elements e.g., Needles, on knitting machines. Two forms of needle gating (rib and interlock) are common and may be interchangeable on the same machine. Types of gating are: (a) interlock gating: interlock gaiting (knitting) - the opposed alignment of one set of needles with the other on a knitting machine. (b) purl gating : purl gaiting (knitting), the opposed alignment of tricks of two needle beds lying in the same plane, on a machine equipped with double-headed needles. (c) rib gating : rib gaiting (knitting), the alternate alignment of one set of needles with the other on a machine equipped with two sets of needles arranged to knit rib fabrics. Also termed gaiting. 

Gauge: A measurement most commonly associated with knitting equipment. It can mean the number of needles per inch in a knitting machine. However, in full fashioned hosiery and sweater machines, the number of needles per 1-1/2 inches represents the gauge. 

Gauze: A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or other manufactured fibers. End-uses include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical dressings. 

Gauze: A light-weight, open-texture fabric produced in plain weave or simple leno weave. 

Gauze weaving: A term commonly used as a synonym for leno weaving; strictly, a method of producing the simpler types of light-weight fabric by leno weaving. 

Gauze/cheesecloth: A loosely woven, thin, sheer, plain weave fabric usually cotton. 

Gear-crimped yarn: A form of textured yarn in which the heated yarn is passed between a pair of gear wheels or through some similar device. 

Gel Dyeing: A continuous tow dyeing method in which soluble dyes are applied to wet-spun fibres (e.g., Acrylic or modacrylic fibres) in the gel state (i.e., After extrusion and coagulation, but before drawing and drying). 

Genappe Yarn: A gassed worsted yarn. (genappe in Belgium.) 

Generic Name: When used here a name to distinguish different classes of textile fibre. For natural fibres, distinguishing attribute is the fibre source; for man-made fibres (see fibre, man-made) chemical difference, which often results in distinctive property differences, is the main basis for classification: other attributes are included where necessary. Generic names are normally used as adjectives; are descriptive of the nature of the fibre or filament components of the associated object (yarn, top, sliver, fabric, garment, etc). The attributes used for specification of the generic names of man-made fibres are however not necessarily identical with the attributes used for naming chemical molecules., The international organization for standardization has published, in ISO 2076, a list of the generic names and definitions of the different categories of man-made fibres at present manufactured on industrial scale for textile and other purposes. These definitions and categories are used throughout this publication where possible.. Other lists of fibre names have been produced in connection with textile labelling legislation (e.g., In the ec textile labelling directive and the u.s. Federal trade commission's textile fiber products identification act). 

Geometric: Refers to designs dominated by relatively simple, clearly defined geometric shapes. 

Georgette: A lightweight, plain weave, crepe fabric with a pebbly texture and slightly raspy hand. Uses high twist yarns which alternate between s and z twist every thread or 2 in both warp and weft. Used for blouses, dresses. 

Georgette: A fine, light-weight, open-texture fabric, usually in a plain weave, made from crepe yarns, usually having two s-twisted and two z-twisted yarns alternately in both warp and weft. 

Georgette: A sheer lightweight fabric, often made of silk or from such manufactured fibers as polyester, with a crepe surface, in which yarns are twisted both ways in the weave. End-uses include dresses and blouses. 

Geotextile: A textile material used by civil engineers as a component of earthworks. 

Geotextiles: Manufactured fiber materials made into a variety of fabric constructions, and used in a variety civil engineering applications. 

Ghagho: A woman's dress, closely related to the abbo (q.v.). The skirt part of the abagho was often more flared than that of an abbo, the ample gathers at either side of the waist lending it peculiar gracefulness when the wearer moved. 

Ghaghra: Skirt, usually with a great deal of flare. The simple ghaghras have only one vertical seam, which turns the cloth or ghaghra-pata into a tube, fastened with a drawstring passing through a long, narrow slot at the waist. Flared ghaghras are made up of, several triangular gored pieces stitched together. 

Gherdar: Flared with an ample skirt, as in a gherdarjama. 

Ghundi: Loop; generally used to hold the little button-like boss called the tukma. 

Ghutanna: A short paoan (q. V.), Worn by men, tight and ending just below the knees. Much favoured in 19th century sikh punjab. 

Gigging: The process of raising a nap on fabrics by means of a teazle machine. 

Gill box: A drafting machine, used in worsted processing, in which the motion of the fibres is in part controlled by pins fixed on moving bars (pinned fallers). 

Gilling: A system of drafting in which the direction of the fibres relative to one another in a sliver is controlled by pins. 

Gin cut cotton: Cotton that has been damaged in ginning by the cutting saws to the extent that its value is reduced. 

Gingham: Light to medium weight, plain weave fabric. It is usually a cotton or cotton blend yarn dye in a color and white or 2 color check design. 

Gingham: A medium weight, plain weave fabric with a dyed yarns in both warp and filling to achieve a plaid or check pattern. End-uses include dresses, shirts, and curtains. 

Gingham: A plain-weave, light-weight cotton fabric, approximately square in construction, in which dyed yarns, or white and dyed yarns, form small checks or, less usually, narrow stripes., Note: if fibres other than cotton are used the term should be suitably qualified (e.g. Viscose rayon gingham). 

Ginning: A process that removes cotton fibres (lint) from the seed. 

Glass (fibre): A term used to describe fibres made of mixed silicates. 

Glass fiber: An inorganic fiber which is very strong, but has poor flexibility and poor abrasion resistance. Glass will not burn and will not conduct electricity. It is impervious to insects, mildew, and sunlight. Today, the primary use of glass fiber is in such industrial applications as insulation or reinforcement of composite structures. 

Glaze: To produce a smooth, glossy, plane surface on a fabric by heat, heavy pressure, or friction., Note: glazing may be produced intentionally, e.g., By friction calendering, or as a fault. 

Glazed: A finish resulting in a smooth, glossy surface on the fabric. Usually the fabric is first treated with resin, wax, starch or other substances then calendered. 

Glen plaid (also called glen urquhart): A popular scottish district check made of elements of houndstooth and guard's check often with a fine line overplaid in a contrasting color. 

Gossypium: The generic name of the cotton plant. 

Gota: Narrow ribbon made of 'gold' or 'silver' thread. 

Graft polymerization: The production of a branched macro-molecule, with a high molecular weight backbone of one polymeric species, to which a second polymer is attached (grafted) at intervals. 

Grain: Another word used for the length wise (weft yarn) or cross-wise (warp yarn) threads of the fabric. 

Grass bleaching: A process for bleaching linen cloth after it has been washed by exposing it, while spread our on a grass lawn or field known as a green, to the action of the elements. 

Grassing (crofting): See grass bleaching. 

Grease Wool: Sheep's wool still containing the natural grease. 

Greasy piece: A piece of woollen fabric as it comes from the loom. 

Greasy wool; grease wool: Sheep's wool still containing the natural grease. 

Green flax (obsolescent): Scutched flax produced from deseeded straw without any intermediate treatment such as retting. 

Greige: See grey goods. 

Greige: Fabric that has not been bleached, dyed or finished after production. If woven sometimes called loomstate. 

Greige Goods: An unfinished fabric, just removed from a knitting machine or a loom, but have received no dry- or wet- finishing operations. Also called grey goods. 

Grenadine: A leno weave fabric with high twist yarns often with woven in stripes, checks or other patterns. Used for dresses, blouses curtains. 

Grey Goods: Woven or knitted fabrics as they leave the loom or knitting machine, i.e., Before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment has been given to them. Some of these fabrics, however, may contain dyed or finished yams., Note: in some countries, particularly in the north American continent, the term greige is used. For woven goods, the term loomstate is frequently used as an alternative. In the linen and lace trades, the term brown goods is used. 

Grey Goods: A fabric in the condition in which it leaves the loom or knitting machine, i.e. before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment has been given to it. Note: in some countries, particularly on the north American continent, the term "greige" (or griege) is used. For woven goods, the term "loomstate" is frequently used as an alternative. In the linen and lace trades, the term "brown goods" is used. 

Grey Scale: A series of pairs of neutrally coloured chips, showing increasing contrast within pairs, used visually to assess contrasts between other pairs of patterns: for example the ISO (international organization for standardization) grey scales comprise two series of chips against which the magnitude of the change in colour of a specimen submitted to a fastness test and of staining of adjacent uncoloured material can be visually assessed and rated on a 1-5 scale. 

Grinding (rag): A local term for pulling. 

Grist: See count. 

Gros Point: Also known as point de venise and venetian lace; very expensive heavy lace from venice, the most fashionable material for cravats among aristocrats and royalty in the 17th century. The lace was usually held together with a ribbon or cravat string, or sewn into a pre-formed bow and fall because it was too heavy to be tied accurately. 

Grosgrain: A firm, tightly woven fabric with a heavy, pronounced, crosswise rib. Used for neckties, millinery, trim. The term often describes ribbon but may be a full width fabric as well. 

Grospoint: A durable, uncut loop pile fabric used mainly for upholstery. 

Guard Hairs: Fibres which project beyond the under-coat of some mammals. They are usually coarser than under-coat fibres. 

Guipure Lace: A needlepoint lace made with a heavy buttonhole stitch and with the pattern on a coarse mesh or held together with connecting threads. 

Gum Waste: Waste comprising all broken silk threads that have been discarded during reeling, or at the inspection of the skeins, and that have not undergone any further processing. 

Gum-sericin: A gelatinous protein, usually comprising 20% to 30% by mass of raw silk, cementing the two fibroin filaments (brins) in a silk fibre (bave). 

Gunny: A strong, coarse, plain weave fabric usually of jute. Similar to burlap but heavier and coarser. Used for baling and sacks. 

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