Tekstil ve Moda

Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, P - Textile Dictionary

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Letter P 

Paan-shaped: Of the shape of a betel-leaf.

Pack (man-made fibre spinning): A replaceable assembly, usually comprising filter media, spreader plates, and one or more spinnerets.

Pack Dyeing: A method of dyeing in which the liquor is circulated through the goods. Note: The use of the term 'pressure dyeing in this connection is deprecated.

Pack Dyeing: The forced circulation of dye liquor through packages of fibre, yarn or fabric, without limitation of temperature. Note: The use of the term "pressure dyeing" in this connection is deprecated. (see also high-temperature dyeing).

Package Dyeing: A method of dyeing in which the liquor is circulated radially through a wound package.

Pad: Abbreviated form of padding mangle or padding. Note:. It is often used in conjunction with other process terms to describe sequential operations in dyeing, or finishing, e.g., Pad-bake, pad-batch, pad-dry, and pad-steam. It is occasionally used also to describe processes carried out on a padding mangle as opposed to batchwise treatment padder.

Padding: Impregnation of a substrate with a liquor or a paste followed by squeezing, usually by passage through a nip, to leave a specific quantity of liquor or paste on the substrate.

Padding: The application of a liquor or a paste to textiles, either by passing the material through a bath and subsequently through squeeze rollers, or by passing it through squeeze rollers, the bottom one of which carries the liquor or paste.

Pad-steam Process: A process of continuous dyeing in which the fabric in open width is padded with dyestuff and, if necessary, with a reducing agent, and is then steamed. (see also padding).

Padding Mangle: A form of mangle for the impregnation of textiles in open width in which the textile is passed through one or more nips. The textile may be saturated before passing through the nip, or impregnating liquid may be carried as a film on the surface of one of the bowls forming the nip.

Pagri: Turban.

Pairhaniphiran: Loose cloak-like shirt reaching down to the feet. Very popular as an article of wear in kashmir where it was made mostly of woolen cloth.

Paisley: A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses, blouses, and men's ties.

Paisley: A design originating in asia, traditionally in a teardrop shape with a curving point containing and surrounded by many small abstract and geometric designs.

Palatine: Little fur stole which takes its name from the princess palatine who, during the hard winter of 1676, wore a fur as a cravat.

Pan (fibre): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85 % (by mass) of recurring cyanoethene (acrylonitrile) groups.

Panama: A plain weave fabric traditionally of cotton or wool. Used for summer suitings and dresses.

Paniers: underskirts stretched over metal hoops which appeared around 1718-20 in France and remained in fashion under various forms until the French revolution.

Panne: A fabric which has had the surface flattened by heavy roller pressure giving it luster. Often done on pile fabrics, knits, or satins.

Panne Velvet: A lightweight velvet that has had the pile flattened in one direction.

Panné Velvet: A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fiber, in which the pile has been flattened in one direction. 

Pantholops Hogsoni: See shahtoosh.

Pantofles: Female heelless slippers or mules worn during the 17th century, but getting even more fashionable toward the end of the period. They were made from brocade and embroidered leather.

Paper Yarn: A yarn consisting of one or more continuous lengths of paper strip, or a yam incorporating one or more continuous lengths of paper strip as a major component. Note 1: Paper in normal widths is wound into rolls of substantial length, and cut or 'slit' into strips ranging from 0.5 mm wide upwards. By appropriate treatment (which may include 'turning-over' the edges or the application of adhesives or water or both), strips are twisted sufficiently to make a round-section, tubular form of yam. Coloured paper mat be used. Note 2: single paper yarns may be doubled, and one or more twisted with textile yarn(s) around a core yarn.

Paper-like: Refers to fabric with a crisp, noisy hand that suggests paper.

Parachute Cloth: lightweight, strong, compact fabric used for outerwear, luggage and parachutes.

Parachute Cloth: A close-weave, lightweight, synthetic fibre or silk fabric with high bursting and tearing strengths.

Parachute Fabric: A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon, cotton, or polyester.

Parallel Line Gratings: Transparent plates containing uniformly spaced parallel lines in the cross-wise direction. It is possible to determine the number of threads per unit length (cm or inch) in a fabric by selecting an appropriate grating and placing it parallel to a set of threads. The number of lines appearing on the grating indicates the difference between the total number of lines on the grating and the total number of threads in the area covered by the grating. By placing a grating at a small angle to a set of threads, irregularities in their spacing can be detected.

Parchmentizing: A finishing treatment, comprising a short contact with, e.g., Sulphuric acid of high concentration, whose aim is to produce a variety of effects, depending on the type of fabric and the conditions used ranging from a linen-like handle to a transparent organdie effect. The treatment is applied mainly to cotton. Reagents other than sulphuric acid will also produce the effect.

Partially oriented yarn-poy: A continuous-filament yam made by extruding a synthetic polymer so that a substantial degree of molecular orientation is present in the resulting filaments, but further molecular orientation is possible. Note.1, the resulting yarn will usually require a positive draw-ratio in subsequent processing in order to orient fully the molecular structure and optimize tensile properties. Note 2: yarns of this type made by high-speed spinning are commonly used as a feedstock for producing draw-textured yarns.

Passacaille: Fashionable dance (passacaglia), whose name was given to the cord attaching the muff to the waist during louis xiv's reign.

Passement: Originally this was the name for all kinds of lace in the 16th and 17th centuries. No matter if it was made from linen threads, silk or metal. Gradually, the name dentelle was given to lighter work made with shuttles or needle, while passement developed into passementerie which describes all kinds of woven ornament.

Patchwork: Various colors or designs combined together in one design. May be print or yarn dye.

Patka: A girdle or kamarband, worn usually over pyjama (q.v.), And often very sumptuous and decorative.

Peach Skin: A soft, sueded finish resulting from sanding or chemical treatment of the fabric.

Peached: A soft sueded hand that suggests the downy skin of a peach.

Pearlized Coating: A fabric coating with a surface luster suggestive of a pearl. Used a as face for outerwear fabrics.

Pearls: Referring to fabric embellished with pearls.

Peau de Soie: A French term, meaning literally 'skin of silk' applied originally to a fine silk fabric in a modified weave that had a ribbed or grained appearance and was sometimes reversible. The term nowadays includes fabrics made from man-made fibre yams. It is recommended that in such contexts the name of the fibre should be indicated.

Peau de Soie: A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns and eveningwear.

Pebble Crepe: See moss crepe/ pebble crepe.

Pebbly: Refers to a fabric surface with a grainy, crepey texture.

Percale: A smooth, closely woven, plain weave fabric often of cotton. Often used as a print cloth for apparel and sheets.

Percale: A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch) cotton-like fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.

Percentage Cover: Cover factor as a percentage of the maximum possible for a particular weave structure.

Percentage Moisture Content: The weight of moisture in a material expressed as a percentage of the total weight.

Perch: A manually or mechanically operated contrivance consisting of a system of rollers over which fabric is drawn at open width for the purpose of inspection. (2) to inspect fabric in a vertical (hanging) position or at an angle inclined upwards away from the source of light. Note: The inclined position on a manual perch is obtained by holding the fabric forward when required. On a mechanical perch the angle is fixed by a low front roller. The purpose of perching is to inspect the product at different stages of manufacture and processing.

Perforated/punched: Holes or small motifs are punched out of the fabric with a metal roller forming a design or pattern.

Performance Fabrics: Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualitites, such as moisture management, uv protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.

Permanent Press: A deprecated alternative to durable press.

Permanent set: The process of conferring stability of form upon fibres, yarns, or fabrics, usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions.

Permeability: A textile characteristic which allows air, water, and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.

Peshwaz: Long gown-like dress, consisting essentially of a choli (q.v.) Worn rather high to which a front-opening skirt is attached. The garment was worn at an early point by men, too, but is essentially to be regarded as women's apparel. Worn with much refinement and elegance 'on occasions of household festivals'. Literally, "front-opening".

Petia: An apron-like piece of cloth attached to the lower end of a choli (q.v.) Or kanjari (q.v.) And hanging down so as to partially cover the stomach.

Petite Oie: Set of ribbons which, in the mid 17th century, was used to trim men's suits and which became very large when petticoat breeches were worn.

Petite Point: A small, slanting, needlepoint stitch that form even lines of a solid background. Used for pillows, slipcovers.

Petticoat Breeches, also rhinegraves: Fashionable in mid 17th century to around 1675, either a skirt-like construction or a divided skirt with full, wide breeches and attached canons underneath. The legs were loose and flowing.

Pfleidering: The process of shedding pressed alkali-cellulose in a machine named a pfleiderer, after its inventor.

Phase change materials: A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the garment is worn.

Phormium tenax: See New Zealand flax or hemp, although now grown in other countries.

Photodegradation: Degradation caused by the absorption of light (particularly ultraviolet light) and consequent chemical reaction.

Photodegradation: Degradation caused by the absorption of light or other radiation and by consequent chemical reactions. Ultra-violet radiation is an especially potent cause.

Phthalates: These chemicals are salts or esters of phthalic acid. The esters are commonly used as plasticizers to soften polyvinyl chloride (pvc), and increase the flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity of plastic products. However, when ingested, phthalates can cause kidney and liver damage. Due to these health concerns, phthalates are now being phased out of many products in the united states, Canada, and the European union.

Phulkari: Literally, "flowered work". Term used for a type of embroidery practiced by women in the punjab for head-veils and other garment-pieces. The embroidery is worked in floss-silk upon coarse cotton cloth, in darning stitch over counted threads, being worked from the back of the fabric.

Pick: A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.

Pick (n) ''shot'': A) a single operation of the weft-insertion mechanism in weaving. B) one or more weft threads inserted between successive beat-ups. (see beating-up).

Pick (v): to pass the weft through the warp shed in weaving.

Pick-and-pick fabric: A woven fabric in which the alternate picks are of different colours or yarns. Note: if the weft is inserted by shuttles, this fabric must be produced on a pick-at-will loom (q.v.).

Picking: A) the second of the three basic motions in weaving, in which the weft is passed through the warp shed.
B) the rectification of the face and the back of a carpet after manufacture, including insertion of missing tufts, replacement of incorrect ones and repair of broken yarns in the backing (local mending).
C) a process carried out before the final stage of fabric finishing to remove, by hand, any contamination (such as kemp (see kemp fibres), wrong fibre, coloured hair, etc.) that has not been removed by previous processing. Note: this process is carried out in particular during the finishing of suitings, face-finished fabrics and cream or off-white fabrics.

Picklock Wool: A term used in wool-sorting, mainly in the U.K., For second-best sorts from fleeces.

Picotage: A speckled effect on the surface of a pile fabric owing to differential light reflection from tips of tufts.

Piece (flax): The small handful that is the unit of scutched flax.

Piece: A length of fabric of customarily accepted unit length. Note: A frequent contract practice is for the purchaser to specify a minimum piece length below which no pieces will be accepted. Alternatively, a 'cut-through' allowance is specified, the seller has to make in the case of all pieces less than the specified figure. The reason for such practices is the greater liability to waste in cutting out from short-length pieces than standard-length pieces. The term 'piece' is applied at all stages of fabric manufacture although often qualified, e.g., Grey piece or loomstate piece, the qualification is understood in commercial practice.

Piece dyeing: Dyeing in fabric form.

Piece-dyeing: The dyeing of fabrics in the piece.

Piece glass: See counting glass.

Piece-goods: Fabric sold by or from the piece.

Pieces: Small bunches of wool staple taken during sorting from various fleeces and sold in lots.

Piece-goods: Fabric sold by or from the piece.

Pierced Cocoons: Cocoons from which the moths have been allowed to emerge so that they may reproduce.

Pigment: A substance in particulate form that is substantially insoluble in a medium, but which is mechanically dispersed in this medium to modify its colour and/or light-scattering properties.

Pigment Dyed: An insoluble colorant is applied to the fabric as a paste or emulsion, heat cured and bound to the fabric with resins or binders. The curing process can be controlled so the color will fade after washing, giving the garments a used worn look.

Pigment Padding: The application of an aqueous dispersion of a pigment to a fabric by padding., Note: lt is commonly used to describe the first stage of a process for the application of vat dyes to fabrics, followed by fixation of the vat dye through its leuco form. It is also used in the application of resin-bonded pigments.

Pigment Printed: An insoluble colorant is printed on the fabric as a paste or emulsion, heat cured and bound to the fabric with resins or binders. Allows for the printing of fabrics with fiber blends that would be otherwise difficult or expensive to print.

Pigtail: A yarn-guide in the form of a short open-ended helix.

Pile: A surface effect on a fabric formed by tufts or loops of yarn that stand up from the body of the fabric., Note: originally nap and pile were used synonymously, but the present trend of using the two terms for different concepts is to be encouraged as providing a means of differentiating and avoidance of confusion.

Pile fabric: A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.

Pile knit: A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.

Pile weave: A type of decorative weave in which a pile is formed by additional warp or filling yarns interlaced in such a way that loops are formed on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops may be left uncut, or they may be cut to expose yarn ends and produce cut pile fabric.

Pilling: A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear, abrasion, or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.

Pill; pilling: Small accumulations of fibres on the surface of a fabric. Pills can develop during wear, and are held to the fabric by an entanglement with the surface fibres of the material

Pima Cotton: A fine long staple cotton, originally derived by crossing American and Egyptian species. Named for pima county arizona. Used in fine shirtings and dress fabrics.

Piña: A fiber made from the leaves of a pineapple and is commonly used in the Philippines. It is sometimes combined with silk or polyester to create a textile fabric. The end fabric is lightweight, easy to care for and has an elegant appearance similar to linen. See also "natural vegetable fibers".

Pin drafting: Any system of drafting, (e.g. Gilling), in which the direction of the fibres relative to one another in a sliver is controlled by pins.

Pincord/pinwale: Fabric with a very narrow wale or rib. Used in describing piques, corduroys or other ribbed fabrics. Also called baby cord.

Pineapple Fibre: A fibre from the leaf of the plant acanas comosus, capable of being processed into fine fabrics.

Pinpoint Oxford: An oxford weave fabric using fine yarns resulting in a small oxford texture. Usually cotton. Used for fine shirtings.

Pinstripe: A design using fine line vertical stripes, usually light color stripes on a dark ground.

Pique: A fabric characterized by a prominent, all-over geometric texture. It is most commonly woven on a dobby loom but it is also produced as a double knit. The most common textures are cords ( either vertical or horizontal), birdseye, waffle, honeycomb and bullseye. Produced in a variety of weights and fibers.

Piqué: A medium-weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or patterns. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines.

Pirn: A support, slightly tapered, with or without a conical base, on which yarn is spun or wound for use as a weft. (2) the weft package wound on the support defined in (1). (3) a relatively long but narrow package of yarn taken up on a cylindrical former during draw-twisting of continuous filament yarns.

Plaid: A pattern of stripes and bars that cross each other at right angles.

Plaid: A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a scottish tartan. Plaid infers a multi-colored motif of rather large pattern repeat; the word "check" refers to similar motifs on a small scale and with fewer colors.

Plain Stitch: A knitting stitch that shows a series of lengthwise ribs on the face (from the neck of the yarn loops), and cross wise loops on the back (from the head of the yarn loops).

Plain Weave: The simplest form of weaving in which a pick (filling yarn) passes over the first end (warp yarn), under the second and on continuously, over one end and under the next. The next pick alternates, passing under the first end, over the second, and on continuously under and over each end. Each filling row alternates, thus extending the fabric. Also called a one up one down weave.

Plain Weave: A basic weave, utilizing a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Each filling yarn passes successfully over and under each warp yarn, alternating each row. Any type of yarn made from any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.

Plain Weave: The simplest of all weave interlacings, in which the odd warp threads operate over one and under one weft thread throughout the fabric and the even warp threads reverse this order to under one, over one throughout. Note: A plain weave does not necessarily result in a plain surface effect or plain design in the fabric, e.g. variation in the yarn counts warp to weft or throughout the warp or weft (or both) and variation of the thread spacing warp to weft can produce rib effects (see taffetta, poult, faille and grosgrain), while colour patterning of the warp or weft (or both) results in colour-and-weave effects.

Plaited Fabric: In woven fabrics: A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders. In knitted fabrics: also known as bi-ply knitting, this special knit construction uses the addition of a second yarn within the same stitch. The second yarn is generally of a different color or type. During the knitting process the second yarn is placed under the first yarn, so that each yarn can be rolled to a specific side of the fabric. In many cases, one yarn/color appears on the face of the fabric, and the other yarn/contrast color appears on the back.

Plaited Yarn: A yarn covered by another yarn.

Planchette: French word for boned and stiffened corset.

Plied: Refers to a yarn consisting of 2 or more single yarns twisted together.

Plied yarn: A twisting together of two or more single yarns in one operation.

Plissé: A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to seersucker. End- uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.

Plisse: A fabric with a puckered or pleated effect resulting from printing the fabric with caustic soda. The printed part of the fabric shrinks, causing the unprinted part to pucker.

Plumpers: Small balls of wax that were placed in the cheeks by some women to give the face a fashionable rounded shape from 1660-1700.

Plush: A fabric with a thick cut pile, used in apparel, draperies, upholstery, stuffed toys. May be woven or knit. 2. Brushed or sheared fabrics are also sometimes referred to as plush.

Plush hand: Refers to a thick, resistant, soft luxurious hand.

Ply: Two or more yarns that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn may be 9, 10, or 11 ply.

Pockets: Even in the 17th century were the pockets still a small independent bag attached to the gusset. It is only with the appearance of the justaucorps that pockets are to be found, usually vertical at first, then mostly horizontal (from the 1680s onwards). Women's pockets, in the 18th century, were attached on a string and worn over the panier, to be reached by a slit on both sides of the dress.

Point de neige: Soft and fine lace with a small design (snow flake), fashionable at the end of the 17th century.

Point d'esprit: A machine made net with small all-over dots.

Pointelle: A knit fabric with a pattern of holes or openings made by using transfer stitches.

Polished cotton: A cotton fabric with a luster. The luster may be due to the weave (often satin), or from application of a calendered finish or both. The degree of luster can be moderate or bright.

Polishing: The treatment of tanned skins, or of fabrics, particularly pile fabrics, to increase luster by mechanical means, without compressing the material.

Polishing (yarn): operation(s) for conferring on yams a relatively high degree of smoothness of surface.

Polyvinyl alcohol: A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules of polyethenol (poly vinyl alcohol) of differing levels of acetalization. The iso generic name is vinyl.

Polyacrylonitrile fibre, PAN fibre: A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85 % (by mass) of recurring cyanoethene (acrylonitrile) groups.

Polyamide: A synthetic linear polymer in which the linkage of the simple chemical compound or compounds used in its production takes place through the formation of amide groups, e.g.,

Polyamide (synthetic fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring amide groups, at least 85 % of which are attached to aliphatic or cyclo-aliphatic groups. note: This limited definition was introduced by iso in 1977 as a consequence of the creation of a separate class for aramid fibres.

Polyamide, natural (fibre): Natural fibres consisting of polymers containing the repeating group -co-nh-. Examples are silk, wool, and other animal hairs.

Polycarbamide (generic name); polyurea (fibre): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring aliphatic groups joined by ureylene groups which together comprise at least 85 % (by mass) of the chain.

Polyester: A polymer whose repeating units contain ester linkages in the main chains of the macromolecules, note: cross-linkable polyesters are resin-forming and linear polyesters are fibre-forming.

Polyester (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85 % (by mass) of an ester of a diol and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (terephthalic acid)., Note 1: this term is more restrictive than the chemical definition of polyester. Note 2: In the U.S., The generic term is more broadly defined to encompass the use of aromatic dicarboxylic acids other than benzene- 1,4-dicarboxylic acid and also to include certain aromatic polyetherester fibres.

Polyester: A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is the most commonly used manufactured fiber worldwide. The fiber-forming substance in polyester is any longchain, synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % by weight of an ester of dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. Polyester has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, has high abrasion resistance, and resists shrinking, stretching and wrinkles. Polyester's low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly. Polyester fabrics are used in apparel and home furnishings (i.e. bedspreads, bedsheets, draperies and curtains). Industrial polyesters are used in ropes, tire reinforcements, safety belts, and plastics. Polyester fiberfill is used as stuffing in cushions, comforters, and pillows.

Polyethylene (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules of unsubstituted aliphatic saturated hydrocarbon.

Polylactic acid (pla) fiber: A synthetic substance produced from the fermentation of plant sugars derived primarily from corn, which is then made into a fiber. Lightweight, hypoallergenic, and providing more uv protection than polyester, it uses about half the energy required to manufacture other synthetic polymers and is biodegradable. Downside: growing just one acre of corn uses enough water to run a household dishwasher over 30,000 times. See also corn fiber.

Polyester fibre: The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that contains, in the chain, at least 85 % (m/m) of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terphthalic acid, e.g. poly(ethyleneterephthalate).

Polyethylene fibre: The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer of ethylene and that has the structure:
A) high-density polyethylene *hdpe), 0,96 g/m², produced by low-pressure polymerisation; and
B) low-density polyethylene (ldpe), 0,93 g/m², produced by high-pressure polymerisation.

Polymer: A high molecular weight structure, which makes up the substance from which manufactured fibers are produced. The fiber is created by linking together the chain-like molecular units called monomers.

Polymer: A large molecule built up by the repetition of small, simple, chemical units.

Polymer, atactic: See atactic polymer.

Polymer, syndiotactic polymerization: The process used to link small, simple, chemical molecules into a polymer.

Polymerization, batch: A process for making polymer in batches.

Polymerization, continuous: A process for making polymer in which the reactants are fed continuously to, and the product is withdrawn continuously from, a vessel or series of vessels.

Polynosic (fibre): A term used to describe regenerated cellulose fibres characterized by a high initial wet modulus of elasticity and a relatively low degree of swelling in sodium hydroxide solution. The is0 generic name is modal.

Polyolefin (fibre): A term used to describe manufactured fibres in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % by weight of ethene (ethylene), propene (propylene), or other olefin units. The term includes the iso generic names are polypropylene and polyethylene.

Polypropylene (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having an aliphatic saturated hydrocarbon chain in which alternate carbon atoms carry a methyl group, generally in an isotactic disposition and without further substitution.

Polypropylene (olefin or polyolefin): A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include thermal underwear, activewear apparel, rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.

Polymerisation: A combination or association of molecules that may be of one compound or two or more compounds that react, simultaneously or consecutively, to form a regular system of molecules (usually of high molecular mass) which behaves and reacts primarily as one unit, termed a polymer. Note: not all polymers are fibre-forming; fibres are formed from linear polymers only.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (fibre): A fibre made from a synthetic linear polymer in which the chief repeating unit is.

Polyurea (fibre), polycarbamide (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring aliphatic groups joined by ureylene groups which together comprise at least 85 % (by mass) of the chain.

Polyurethane (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain recurring aliphatic groups joined by urethane groups which together comprise at least 85 % (by mass) of the chain.

Polynosic Fibre: A regenerated cellulose fibre that is characterised by a high initial wet modulus of elasticity and a relatively low degree of swelling in sodium hydroxide solution.

Polyolefin fibre: A fibre made from a synthetic linear polymer obtained by polymerising an unsaturated hydrocarbon (e.g. ethylene ch2-ch2 or propylene ch2 = ch-ch3) to give a linear saturated hydrocarbon. (see also polyethylene fibre and polypropylene fibre).

Polypropylene fibre: The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer of propylene.

Pomander: From the French word "pomme" for apple, still in use in the first half of the 17th century by ladies. Small balls of perfume placed in decorated, perforated boxes and worn around the waist on chains.

Pongee: Originally and traditionally a light-weight fabric hand-woven in china of wild silk in plain weave. The term is now also applied to fabrics having a similar weight and appearance, power-woven, and made with yams other than silk. If of cotton, these fabrics are usually mercerized and schreinered.

Pongee: The most common form is a naturally colored lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed effect. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc. Originally made of wild chinese silk with a knotty rough weave.

Pongee: A plain weave, light to medium weight silk fabric with slubs and nubs on the surface. Often found in a natural light tan color. 2. A plain weave light to medium weight fabric with a smooth surface. May be of cotton or manufactured fibers such as polyester. Used for dresses, blouses, pajamas, linings.

Ponte di roma: Weft knitted, interlock based, double jersey structure. Means "roman bridge" which is suggested by the arrangement of loops. The fabric looks the same on both sides.

Ponte di roma: A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.

Poodle cloth: A fabric with a curly or loop pile resembling the coat of a poodle dog.

Poor appearance: Small blemishes that individually do not warrant a string (q.v.) but that, when the fabric is assessed overall, render it unacceptable (in part or in whole).

Poor boy: An inexpensive rib knit usually 2x3 or 3x1 in a fine to medium yarn.

Poor cover: A faulty fabric in which the warp or weft yarns show through the covering yarns when not so required by the construction.

Popcorn: A fabric utilizing yarn with thick spots suggesting popcorn. Usually a knit but may be woven.

Poplin: A plain weave fabric with a fine, crosswise rib, the result of using finer warp yarns and heavier weft yarns and a higher thread count in the warp than the weft. Usually medium weight. Made in a variety of fibers but common in cotton and cotton blends. A common shirting fabric.

Poplin: A plain-weave fabric with weftway ribs and high warp sett.

Poplin: A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Poplin used to be associated with casual clothing, but as the "world of work" has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being used frequently in casual trousers.

Potting: A finishing process applied mainly to woollen fabrics. The dyed fabric (which may have crabbed) is batched on a roller and is then immersed in water. The temperature of the liquor an duration of treatment depend on the effect desired. The fabric is cooled on the roller and re-batched end for end and the process is repeated. The fabric is finally wound off the roller and dried.

Powder bonding: A method of making thermally-bonded nonwoven fabric in which the fibre web or batt is bonded by the use of heat-sensitive powder dispersed within it.

Poy: See partially oriented yarn.

Prepared for printing/dyeing: Fabric which has been made ready for dyeing or printing by performing all preliminary processes on the greige such as singeing, desizing, scouring, and bleaching.

Preshrunk: A term applied to a textile material that has been shrunk to predetermined dimensions in order to minimize shrinkage in use. Nowadays fabrics are preshrunk by compressive shrinkage.

Pre-shrunk: The fabric is allowed to shrink during finishing to reduce residual shrinkage in the final product.

Press Mark: Undesirable shinning lines on the right side of the garment due to incorrect ironing.

Pressure Mark: An impression or an area of greater lustre in fabric, caused by irregularities of pressure during the finishing process.

Press Ratio (alkali-cellulose): The ratio of the weight of alkali-cellulose, after excess sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution has been pressed out, to the original weight of pulp.

Pressing: The application of pressure, with or without steaming or heating, (1) to remove unintended creases and to impart a flat appearance to fabrics and garments, (2) to introduce desirable creases garments.

Pressure Boil: The scouring of cellulosic textiles with alkaline liquors in closed vessels under excess pressure, normally 140-210 kpa.

Primary Cellulose Acetate: An ester formed from cellulose and ethanoic acid (acetic acid) used to make acetate fibres., note: purified cellulose is ethanoylated (acetylated) by ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) in the presence of a catalyst (such as sulphuric acid or perchloric acid) in a solvent such as dichloromethane (methylene chloride) or ethanoic acid. The reaction proceeds until primary cellulose acetate containing 60 % of combined ethanoic acid is formed. Secondary cellulose acetate is formed from the primary acetate by partial hydolysis. It is obtained by adding water in excess of that required to react with the residual ethanoic anhydride, which thus allows the hydrolysis to take place.

Print Bonding: A method of making nonwoven fabrics in which there is controlled application of adhesive specific areas of the fibre web or batt by using printing techniques similar to those used coloration.

Printed & overdyed: Refers to fabrics which have been first printed then overdyed allowing the design to show through.

Printing: The production of a design or motif on a substrate by application of a colorant or other reagent, usually in a paste or ink, in a predetermined pattern.

Printing: The reproduction of a pattern onto a textile material by applying a suitable substance by means of an engraved surface, a stencil or other patterning device.

Producer Twist: The small amount of twist inserted during the production of multi-filament yarn by certain take-up systems such as pot, cap, or ring-and-traveler.

Proof: Fully resistant to a specified agency, either by reason of physical structure or inherent chemical non-reactivity, or arising from a treatment designed to impart the desired characteristics. Note 1: proofing treatments are defined by specified limits ascertained by test, and the use of the term related to the limiting conditions. Note 2: 'resistant', 'retardant' or 'repellent' are appropriate alternatives when the resistance is less than full.

Proof: Desistant to a specified agency either by reason of the physical structure or the chemical non-reactivity of the textile, or arising from a treatment designed to impart the desired characteristics.
Note: A) proofing treatments should be defined by specified limits ascertained by tests, and the use of the term should be related to the limiting conditions.
B) the indiscriminate use of this term is deprecated, and its substitution by words such as "resistant", "retardant" or "repellent" in the appropriate context is recommended.

Proofed: Descriptive of material that has been treated to render its resistant to a specified agency. Note: The efficacy of a proofing treatment is normally defined by a limit that is related to a specific test procedure, and the use of the term should be related to limiting conditions.

Proofed: Descriptive of material that has been treated to render it resistant to a specified agency. Note: A designation of materials as 'proofed' should indicate that the material conforms to definite standards.

Proofing spot: A blob of, or excess of, proofing agent adhering to the fabric but that can usually be removed quite easily.

Protein (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres obtained from natural protein substances by chemical regeneration.

Ptfe fabric: A fabric made from polytetrafluoroethylene, such as gore-tex.

Pu coated: Refers to a fabric which has been coated with polyurethane, usually to make it waterproof but sometimes to give a firmer hand.

Pucker: A blister or puffed effect on the surface of the fabric. It may be the result of chemical treatment of the fabric or the result of using different yarns, yarns under different tension, or yarns of different shrinkage in one fabric.

Pucker: To draw up into folds or wrinkles.

Pucker: An undulation in the fabric, caused by wrong conditions during finishing, e.g. during compressive shrinking.

Pucker Embroidery: Fabric which has been embroidered in a such a way that the stitching purposefully causes a crinkle or pucker in the fabric.

Pull (sampling): A sample of fibres abstracted manually from a bulk lot of raw material or sliver with a view to assessing the length and/or distribution of length of fibre within the sample.

Pulled pile: ''pulled threads'' (terry fabric): Areas (continuous or discontinuous) where the terry pile is broken or missing or not uniform.

Pulling (rag): The operation of reducing rags and thread waste to a fibrous state.

Pulling (wool): The removal of wool from skins. Note: before removal, the fibres are loosened by treatment. The skins may be placed on a curved board, and, with ordinary skins, the wool is pushed or rubbed with the hands; with short-wool skins, a blunt knife, held with both hands, is used. When the puller is seated and pulls with his hands from the skin placed on his knees, the process is known as knee pulling.

Pulp (cotton): Purified cotton linters usually in the form of standard sheets about 1 mm thick. Note: The preparation of the linters involves one or more pressure boils with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) followed by hypochlorite bleaching, the severity and number of the boils depending on the use to which the resultant material is to be put. The fibres are composed of glucose units to the exclusion of other sugars and only 1-2 % of the cellulose is soluble in sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) of 17.5% strength at 20c. Suitability for a specific purpose is determined by measurement of the viscosity of the product under standard conditions, and different viscosity ranges are usually specified for material to be used for man-made fibres, lacquers, etc. The material is also supplied in pressed bales.

Pulp (wood): Cellulose fibres isolated from wood by chemical treatments. Note 1: The preparation of wood pulp involves the boiling of wood chips with alkaline liquors or solutions of acidic or neutral salts followed by bleaching with chlorine compounds, the object of these treatments being to remove more or less completely the hemicelluloses and lignin incrustants of the wood. The purified fibres are usually pressed into standard sheets about 1 mm thick, and commercial material retains 4-12% of carbohydrates soluble in 17.5 % soda at 20c, the actual content depending on the severity of the purification treatments. Note 2: mechanical wood pulp is obtained by wet-grinding bark-free wood in stone or other mills. The material is used largely in admixtures with bleached pulp for newsprint and is quite different from wood pulp as defined above in note 1.

Pump Delivery (man-made fibres): The volume of liquid delivered by one revolution of a spinning pump.

Punching (wool industry): A winding operation that prepares four-end balls of sliver for a noble comb.

Purl stitch: A basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knit fabrics that have the same appearance on both sides. The purl stitch is frequently used in combination with the jersey and rib stitches to produce a knitted fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for infants and children's wear, knitted fabrics for specialized sportswear, and bulky knit fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.

Polyacrylonitrile fibre: A fibre made from a synthetic linear polymer.

Pyjama: Trouser-like garment, worn on the lower part of the body alike by men and women. Literally, 'leg-clothing'. The pyjama was worn in many cuts and shapes, much variation being seen in respect of girth, length, tightness, material, etc. 

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