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Letter C - Textile Terms Dictionary

Letter C

Cable Stitch: A knit fabric stitch that produces a design that looks like a heavy cord- common in sweaters and hosiery.

Cabled Yarn: Two or more folded yarns twisted together in one or more operations., Note 1: combinations of folded yarn(s) and single yarn(s) may be described as cabled yarns, e.g., A single yarn twisted together with two folded yarns to give softness to the resulting yarn., Note 2: in the tyre-yarn and tyre-cord sections of the industry, cabled yarns are termed cabled cords or cords.

Cake: The package, roughly cylindrical in shape, of continuous-filament yarn produced in the viscose spinning industry by means of a topham box.

Calache or calash: A protective folding hood worn to protect high headresses c. 1770s-1830s and made like a sunbonnet.

Calender: A machine in which heavy bowls rotate in contact under mechanical pressure. Note: the bowls may be unheated or one may be a thick-walled steel shell heated internally. All bowls may rotate at the same surface speed, or one highly polished and heated bowl may rotate at a higher surface speed than the rest. In certain specialised machines, e.g. for knitted goods, two adjacent bowls may be heated, or, in the case of a laundry calender, one bowl works against a steam chest shaped to the curvature of the bowl. (see also friction calendering).

Calendered: A flat, smooth, glossy finish applied to the fabric by passing it through heavy rollers under pressure and usually heat. Cire, chintz, moire, & glazing are examples of calendered finishes.

Calendered finish: A smooth finish obtained by passing the fabric between heavy bowls of a calender, which results in the fabric being so flattened as to close the interstices between the yarns.

Calendering: The process of passing fabric through a calendar in which a highly polished, usually heated, steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed than the softer (for example, cotton- or paper-filled) bowl against which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contact with the steel bowl. The friction ratio is the ratio of the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl to that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1.5 to 3.0.

Calendering: A process of passing cloths between one or more rollers (or calenders), usually under carefully controlled heat and pressure, to produce a variety of surface effects or textures in a fabric such as high luster, glazing, embossing, and moiré.

Calico: A light weight, plain weave fabric usually cotton or cotton blend typically printed with small, all over, brightly colored designs. Used frequently in aprons, quilts & curtains.

Calico: One of the oldest basic cotton fabrics on the market that traces its origin to calcutta, India. Usually a plain, closely woven inexpensive cloth made in solid colors on a white or contrasting background. Often one, two, or three colors are seen on the face of the goods which are usually discharge or resist printed, frequently in a small floral pattern. Used mainly for aprons, dresses, crazy quilts, sportswear. Often interchangeable with percale - which is 80-square cotton.

Cambric: Soft, white, closely woven cotton fabric calendered to achieve a high glaze. Used mainly for pocket linings, underwear, aprons, shirts, and handkerchiefs. Originally made in cambrai, France, of linen and used for church embroidery and table linen.

Cambric: A plain weave, traditionally light weight cotton fabric with a luster on the surface .Used For handkerchiefs underwear, shirts, aprons, tablecloths.

Camel Hair: The hair of the camel (camelus bactrianus) or dromedary. It comprises the strong, coarse, outer hair and the undercoat.

Camel Hair: Wool-like underhair of the bactrian camel, a two-humped pack-carrying species that is lustrous and extremely soft. Because it is expensive, often used in blends with wool for coats, suits, sweaters, blankets, and oriental rugs. Natural colors range from light tan to brownish black. Classified as wool under the wool products labeling act.

Candlewick: A tufted pile fabric with a fuzzy surface that looks like chenille. It is made by looping a heavy plied yarn on a muslin base then cutting the loops. Used for bedspreads, robes, draperies.

Candlewick Fabric: Unbleached muslin bed sheeting, sometimes called kraft muslin, used as a base fabric on which a chenille effect is formed by application of candlewick (heavy-plied yarns) loops which are then cut to give the fuzzy effect and cut-yarn appearance of the true chenille yarn.

Canons, also cannons: 17th century, full, wide ruffles/flounces attached at the bottom of breeches, especially petticoat breeches. It was a sort of half-stocking, at first long and narrow, then wider and decorated with flounces and lace. 

Canton Flannel: A heavy, warm, strong cotton or cotton blend fabric with a twill face and a brushed back. Used for nightwear, underwear, gloves, linings. Originally produced in canton china.

Canvas /duck: A strong, firm, tightly woven, durable fabric usually of cotton but sometimes of linen, hemp or other fibers. It is usually plain weave but sometimes with a crosswise rib. It is produced in a variety of weights & used in a variety of products such as tents, awnings, sails, upholstery, footwear, jackets, trousers.

Canvas: Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to the heavier, coarser constructions.

Cape net: A stiff heavy net which can be shaped when wet and holds that shape when dried. Used for hats.

Capillary Action: A process by which liquids are drawn through the fabric and into pores found between fibers and yarns.

Capotain or Copotain: A high conical, high crowned and small-brimmed cap fashionable in the 16th century. In the mid-17th century worn by supporters of the puritan fraction in england.

Carbon Fibre: A fibre composed of at least 90% (m/m) of carbon, and commonly produced by carbonising organic polymers in filamentary form.

Carbon (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres containing at least 98% of carbon obtained by controlled pyrolosis of appropriate fibres.

Carbonized Rag Fibre: Animal fibre recovered by either the wet or the dry carbonizing process.

Carbonizing: A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic matter from admixture with animal fibres by degrading the cellulosic material to an easily friable condition. The process involves treatment with an acid, as by the use of hydrochloric acid gas (dry process) or sulphuric acid solution (wet process), followed by heating.

Carded: A yarn in which the fibers have been partially straightened and cleaned prior to spinning. The yarn is generally coarser and more uneven than a combed yarn.

Carding: A process of opening and cleaning textile fibers - usually cotton - which separates fibers from each other, lays them parallel, forms them into a thin web, and then condenses them into a single continuous untwisted strand or bundle of fibers called a "sliver".

Cardigan -full: A variation of a 1x1 rib stitch with 2 sets of needles there is alternate knitting and tucking on one course then tucking and knitting on the next course. The fabric has the same look on both sides as every wale on both sides has both a held loop and a tuck loop. Also called polka rib.

Cardigan- half: A variation of a 1x1 rib stitch with knitting & tucking in alternate courses on one set of needles. The construction on the back is the reverse of the face. Also called royal rib.

Carrier (coloration): A type of accelerant, particularly used in the dyeing and printing of hydrophobic fibres with disperse dyes.

Carrier (fibre): A fibre that is blended with the main constituent fibre to improve processing behavior.

Carrotting: The modification of the tips of fur fibre (rabbit fur) by chemical treatment to improve their felting capacity. Reagents generally used are mercury in nitric acid and mixtures of oxidizing and hydrolysing agents.

Casein: The principal protein in milk. It serves as the raw material for some regenerated protein fibres.

Casement Cloth: A general term for sheer, lightweight, open weave fabrics used for curtains and backing for heavy drapery.

Cashmere: Originally hair from the downy undercoat of the asiatic goat (capra hircus laniger). Currently similar hair from animals bred selectively from the feral goat population of australia, new zealand and scotland, is also being regarded as cashmere provided the fibre diameter is similar.

Cashmere: A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the kashmir goat of Tibet, Mongolia, china, Iran, Iraq, and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats, and dresses.

Cassock, also casaque: Three-quarter length coat cut with wide, full sleeves and wide throughout the body, ending at thigh-height or below. An unbelted overcoat, open-sided and almost always covered with braid and woven ornament. It was worn from the middle of the 16th century, mainly for hunting and riding.

Cationic: A type of dye used on acrylic or on modified polyester or modified nylon yarn . Often used to achieve cross dyed effects cationic dyeable yarn is woven in a pattern with regular yarn in the same fabric. The pattern becomes visible by dyeing the fabric in 2 baths, one for each of the types of yarn.

Cationic dye: A dye that dissociates in aqueous solution to give a positively charged coloured ion.

Causticizing: Brief treatment of cellulosic fabrics with caustic soda solution at room temperature without tension to improve the colour yield in printing and dyeing, particularly with reactive dyes.

Cavalier-style: The flamboyant men's fashion of the first half of the 17th century. The supporters of the English king charles i were called cavaliers, in contrast to the plain dressed puritans.

Cavalry twill: A sturdy woven fabric with a steep pronounced double twill line. Often of cotton or wool but may be any fiber.

Cavalry twill: A firm warp-faced suiting that has a steep twill weave with double twill lines separated by pronounced grooves that are formed by the weft.

Cavings (flax) (obsolescent): the reject from the bottom ridge of a roughing-out machine consisting mostly of rough bits of broken straw and some root ends.

Cellulose: A white naturally occurring carbohydrate polymer found in organic woody substances of most vegetation. It is the basic raw material needed for production of rayon and acetate fibers. About 96 percent of cotton is cellulose. Man-made fibers based on petrochemical raw materials - such as nylon, polyester, acrylics, etc. - are called non-cellulosics.

Cellulose Diacetate: Theoretically, an ester of cellulose and ethanoic acid containing 48.8% of combined ethanoic acid (acetic acid). This, however, is not a commercial product. The same term is sometimes used loosely to describe propanone-soluble (acetone-soluble) cellulose acetate.

Cellulose ethanoate (acetate): An ester formed from cellulose and ethanoic acid (acetic acid) used to make acetate fibres. , note: purified cellulose is ethanoylated (acetylated) by ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) in the presence of a catalyst (such as sulphuric acid or perchloric acid) in a solvent such as dichloromethane (methylene chloride) or ethanoic acid. The reaction proceeds until primary cellulose acetate containing 60% of combined ethanoic acid is formed. Secondary cellulose acetate is formed from the primary acetate by partial hydrolysis. It is obtained by adding water in excess of that required to react with the residual ethanoic anhydride, which thus allows the hydrolysis to take place.

Cellulose triacetate: Theoretically, a cellulose acetate containing 62.5% of combined ethanoic acid (acetic acid) but the term is generally used for primary cellulose ethanoate (acetate) containing more than 60% of combined ethanoic acid.

Cellulose Xanthate: A series of compounds formed between carbon disulphide and cellulose in the presence of strong alkali.

Cendal: Silk material resembling taffeta. It was made in various qualities, sometimes even mentioned as a luxury fabric, sometimes only as cheap lining material. Widely used during the middle ages, but in the 17th century it was only used for lining.

Centre Front: It is the portion of the pattern or the garment which is suppose to come in the exact front.

Centrifugal Spinning: A method of man-made fibre production in which the molten or dissolved polymer is thrown centrifugally in fibre form from the edge of a surface rotating at high speed., The term is also used to describe a method of yarn formation involving a rotating cylindrical container, in which, the yarn passes down a central guide tube and is then carried by centrifugal force to the inside of a rotating cylindrical container.

Chaconne: Type of cravat made of a ribbon dangling from the shirt collar to the chest. It takes its name from the dancer pcourt who danced a chaconne in 1692 with his cravat tied in this way.

Chaff: A component of trash in cotton in the form of a heterogeneous assortment of vegetable fragments, most of them being small pieces of leaf and stalk.

Chaff: A component in cotton of trash (q.v.) in the form of a heterogeneous assortment of vegetable fragments, most of them being small pieces of leaf, leaf bract (a small form of leaf growing beneath the boll) and stalk. NOTE: Broken fragments of twig and small branches, particularly when brittle, may be broken up further in ginning and are then also regarded as "chaff". Another component of chaff is the silvery lining of the boll interior, sometimes termed "shale", particularly the partitions dividing the locules before the boll opens.

Challis: A soft, lightweight, plain weave fabric with good drape. Often used for printed dresses and skirts. Most commonly wool or rayon but may be of cotton or other spun fibers.

Challis: One of the softest fabrics made. Named from the American Indian term "shalee", meaning soft. A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.

Chambray: Popular variety of cotton fabric in relatively square count 80 by 76 that combines colored warp and white filling yarns in plain weave. Name derived from Cambrai, France, where it was first made.

Chambray: A lightweight, plain weave fabric, with a colored warp and white weft . Usually plain but may be in stripes, checks, or other patterns. Often used in shirts, dresses children's clothes.

Chameleon: A 3 tone effect that changes with the angle of view. It is achieved by using a warp yarn of one color and double weft yarns of 2 different colors. It is often found in taffetas, poplins or failles of silk or made made filament yarns.

Chamois-like: A hand suggesting the soft pliable leather from the skin of the chamois goat.

Chand-tara: Literally, "moon and star", a pattern often-used in indian textile.

Chantilly Lace: A bobbin lace on a fine net ground characterized by delicate motifs of scrolls, vines, branches, and flowers outlined by a flat (cordonnet) yarn. Often in black. Originally made in chantilly France.

Chantilly lace: Bobbin lace with fine six-sided mesh grounds with pattern outlined in heavy thread.

Charged system: A method of dry cleaning in which an oil-soluble reagent such as petroleum sulphonate is added to the solvent so that a significant amount of water can be added to obtain a substantially clear dispersion of water in the solvent. In a high-charged system the concentration of added reagent, a so-called detergent is 4% while, in a low-charged system the concentration ranges from % to 2%.

Charmeuse: A soft lightweight woven satin fabric with good drape. It is made with high twist yarns, has a semi-lustrous face and a dull back . Often used for blouses, intimate apparel.

Chaubandi chola: A short tunic or shirt fastened with tie-cords worn by children.

Chaugoshia (topi): A four-cornered cap.

Chauri: A flywhisk made generally from a yak's tail. Important as a symbol of royalty or divinity.

Chausses en Bourses: Early 17th century breeches made in bands and padded so they swelled out at the bottom, ending in a flattened balloon shape.

Check: A small pattern of squares or rectangles. It may be printed, yarn dyed , cross dyed or woven into the fabric ( as a dobby or jacquard).

Cheese Cloth: See muslin/see gauze.

Cheesecloth: Plain woven, soft, fragile, low-count cotton fabric similar to tobacco cloth and also known as gauze.

Chemic; Chemick: Calcium or sodium hypochlorite.

Chemicking: Bleaching non-protein fibre material by means of a dilute hypochlorite solution.

Chemise: A light undergarment made from linen, for both sexes.

Chenille: A yarn with fuzzy pile protruding from all sides. It has a velvety caterpillar -like appearance. (the term chenille is derived from the French word for caterpillar) 2. A fabric made with chenille yarn.

Chenille: A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. The yarn is produced by first weaving a fabric with a cotton or linen warp and a silk, wool, rayon, or cotton filling. The warp yarns are taped in groups of tightly woven filling yarns, which have been beaten in very closely. After weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cutting produces a continuous chenille yarn, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn, and giving the pile appearance on all sides of the yarn. The chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs. 2. A fabric woven from the chenille yarn.

Cheviot: A Rough surfaced fabric of wool with a heavy nap. Used for coating. 2. A loosely woven tweed fabric with a shaggy texture. Cheviot was originally made from the wool of the cheviot sheep in the hills at the bordering england and scotland.

Chevron: A design which incorporates herringbone elements of zigzag stripes or joined v's.

Chevron: Term applies to herringbone weaves or prints in zigzag stripes.

Chiffon: A plain woven lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk fabric, containing highly twisted filament yarns. The term "chiffon" implies thinness, diaphanous, or gauze-like structure and softness. Originally made of silk, but today may be found in a wide variety of other manufactured fibers. The fabric, used mainly in evening dresses and scarves.

Chiffon: A lightweight, sheer, plain weave fabric with a dull surface, a soft hand, and good drape. It is made with fine high twisted yarns and has an even or close to even number of threads per inch in the warp and weft. Originally made in silk but now found in polyester and other man-made filament yarns. Used in dresses blouses, scarves, veils.

Chikan kari: Embroidery in white cotton thread upon fine white cotton fabric, like, muslin. Several techniques in chikan-kar are known; lucknow was a famous center of fine workmanship.

Chinchilla cloth: A heavy conventional twill-weave coating with a spongy napped surface that is rolled into little tufts or nubs to resenble chinchilla fur. Usually made from wool or wool/cotton blends in coating weights.

Child's pudding: Small round hats for children made of cloth or straw, forming a shock-absorber to protect them if they fell.

China grass: See ramie.

Chinchilla: A thick, heavy, pile fabric with surface curls or nubs, originally made to suggest chinchilla fur. It is often double faced. It may be woven or knit and is often used as coating.

Chino: A sturdy, medium weight, twill fabric usually of cotton or a cotton blend. It has often been used for summer weight military uniforms, sportswear and work clothes. It is often found in khaki and tan colors.

Chino: classic all-cotton "army twill" fabric made of combed two-ply yarns. Usually vat dyed, mercerized, and given a compressive shrinkage finish. Used traditionally for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity sportswear and work clothes.

Chinoiserie: A old chinese decorative style still used in textiles.

Chintz: A glazed solid or printed fabric usually of cotton or a cotton blend 2. A plain weave fabric, usually cotton, with a multicolor print which may or may not be glazed. If it is unglazed it is called cretonne.

Chintz: glazed plain weave cotton fabric with a tioghtly spun fine warp and a coarser slack twist filling, often printed with brightly colored flowers or stripes. Named from hindu word meaning spotted. Several types of glazes are used in the finishing process. Some glazes wash out in laundering, but others such as resin finishes are permanent. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Chintz end-uses include draperies, slipcovers, skirts, and summer dresses, and shirts.

Chirimen: A Japanese term describing a dull crepe fabric made with a course yarn. Originally of silk but now found in man made filaments such as polyester.

Chite: Painted linen, originally from chitta (India.) which started the fashion for painted linens in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Chlorinated wool: Wool in the fiber, yarn, or fabric form which are treated chemically to decrease felting shrinkage and increase ability to take dyes.

Chlorination: When used with reference to textile processing, a term indicating the reaction of a fibre with chlorine. The chlorine may be in the form of a gas, or its solution in water or it may be obtained from a suitable compound.

Chlorine retention: Some resin treatments or finishes given cotton, rayon, nylon, or blended fabrics, may cause goods to retain varying amounts of chlorine when laundered or bleached with chlorine.

Chlorofibre (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain more than 50% (by mass) of chloroethene (vinyl chloride) or 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene chloride) groups. If the rest of the chain is made up of cyanoethene (acylonitrile) groups then the chloroethene content must be greater than 65%, thus excluding modacrylic fibres from this definition.

Chogaichoga: Loose, sleeved coat-like garment worn over an inner garment like the angarakha (q.v.), Generally sumptuous and appropriate for ceremonial occasions. Of Turkish origin, the chogha was also known as a chugha, chuha orjuha; in Russia as shuba or sbubka.

Choli: A short, bodice-like breast garment of wide popularity among women in India., from early times. Related to the classic cholaka mentioned in sanskrit literature. The garment is worn in many styles; thus, with back covering or without, fastened with strings or extended cloth-pieces, with shaped breast-pieces or flat, etc.

Cholu: A loose, shirt-like garment.

Chrome Dye: A mordant dye capable of forming a chelate complex with a chromium atom.

Chrome Mordant Process: A method of dyeing whereby the fibre is mordanted with a solution of a chromium compound and subsequently dyed with a suitable chrome dye.

Chromophore: That part of the molecular structure of an organic dye or pigment responsible for colour.

Chrysalis: The form taken by a silkworm in the dormant stage of development between larva and moth. It is dark brown and fragments of it can often be detected in silk waste, especially noils.

Churidar: With bangle-like gathers or wrinkles, as in a churidar payan.

Circular Knit: Refers to fabrics knit on a circular knitting machine, i.e. One which has its needles arranged in a circle thus producing the fabric in tubular form. The fabrics may be sold tubular or slit and sold open width. A circular knitting machine may be used to produce full width fabrics or narrow shaped components such as for hosiery.

Circular knit: Weft knit fabric made on a circular needle-bed knitting machine, which produces fabric in tubular form. Common types include single or double knits. Seamless hosiery are also made on a circular knitting machine. Although allowances are made on the machine for knitting the welt and foot. See knitting (circular).

Cire: A finishing process that produces a high gloss on the surface on the fabric by passing it through heavy rollers (calendering) . Fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers like nylon or polyester are cired by calendering with heat and pressure alone. Other fabrics like rayons or silks are calendered with wax or other compounds.

Classing: A process by which whole fleeces are separated into different classes before being baled and sold.

Clear: In synthetic fibres the term clear is commonly used to denote the absence of delustrant.

Clip (wool): One season's yield of wool.

Clip dot/clip spot: A design effect created on a woven fabric by the use of extra yarns which are woven into the fabric at a certain spot then allowed to float over the fabric to the next spot. The float threads are later trimmed but often are allowed to protrude from the surface of the fabric as part of the design.

Cloque/Blister Fabric: A general term to describe fabrics with a blister (pucker) on the surface. The blister may be created by several different methods such as printing with caustic soda or other chemicals, by weaving together yarns under different tension, or by weaving together yarns with different shrinkage properties.

Cloth: A generic term embracing most textile fabrics. The term was originally applied to wool fabric suitable for clothing.

Clothing Wool: Wools of short fibre, not suitable for combing, and used in the manufacture of woollens.

Cloudiness: a) In a weft-knitted fabric, a defect that consists of ill-defined areas of varying density attributable to the use of yarn of irregular thickness.
b) In webs and slivers, a defect that consists of ill-defined areas of varying density.
c) In a dyed fabric, a defect that consists of random, faintly defined areas of varying density.
d) In a bleached fabric, a defect that consists of opaque patches, usually visible only in transmitted light.

Cluny Lace: A heavy bobbin lace using thick yarns usually of cotton or linen. Most often done in geometric patterns . Used for curtains doilies and trim for apparel.

Clo Value: A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation value of typical indoor clothing.

Coarse: Having thick yarns.

Coarse: See alpaca fibre.

Coated: Refers to the application of material such as plastic resin, wax, oil, varnish or lacquer to the surface of the fabric . Application methods include dipping, spraying, brushing, calendering or knife coating. Coating is often applied to make a fabric water repellent or waterproof but may be done simply to alter the hand or appearance of the fabric. Polyurethane, acrylic and pvc resins are common types of coating.

Coated Fabrics: Fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, varnish, rubber, plastic resin of polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene, or other substance to make them longer lasting or impervious to water or other liquids.

Coated Fabric: A textile fabric on one or both surfaces of which has been formed, in situ, a layer or layers of firmly adhering coating material.

Cockade: A ribbon bow deriving from the tie attaching the brim of a cocked hat. Originally decorative, it was also used as political identification; thus the white cockade was worn by the jacobites, and the tricoleur by the French republicans.

Cocked Hat: A hat which is styled with the brim turned up. Particularly applied to styles of the 17th and 18th century.

Cockle (Fabric): The crimped, rippled, wavy or pebbled appearance of a fabric where distortion of the structure has occurred as the result of non-uniform relaxation or shrinkage. NOTE: This defect may result from variations in the tension of the ends (q.v.) or picks at the time of weaving, from variations in the degree of stretch imposed on the yarn during earlier processes or from the differences in contraction of two or more yarns used accidentally or intentionally in the fabric. The defect may be distributed over a large area of fabric or may be confined to isolated stripes, bars or streaks.

Cocoon (silk): An egg-shaped casing of silk spun by the silkworm to protect itself as a chrysalis.

Cocoon Strippings: The first threads secreted by the silkworm when it finds a place to form its cocoon.

Coif: Medieval to 17th century term for close-fitting head covering. Worn in the later period exclusively by women.

Coiffure en bouffons: Women's hairstyle from the end of the reign of louis xiii, tufts of crimped hair over the temples, while the forehead was covered by a fringe known as a garcette.

Coir: A reddish-brown-to-buff coloured coarse fibre obtained from the fruit of the palm cocos nuciferal.

Cold drawing (synthetic filaments and films): The drawing of synthetic filaments or films without the intentional application of external heat., Note: free drawing of filaments or films at a neck is also referred to as cold drawing even though this may be carried out in a heated environment., Colour, (1) sensation. That characteristic of the visual sensation which enables the eye to distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be caused by differences in the spectral distribution of the light rather than by differences in the spatial distribution or fluctuations with time.(2) of an object. The particular visual sensation (as defined above) caused by the light emitted by, transmitted through, or reflected from the object., Note: the colour of a non-self luminous object is dependent on the spectral composition of the incident light, the spectral reflectance or transmittance of the object and the spectral response of the observer. Colour can be described approximately in terms of hue, saturation and lightness, or specified numerically by chromaticity co-ordinates e.g., Those defined by the c.i.e. Standard observer data (1964). Alternatively, colour can be specified by reference to visual standards, e.g., The munsell colour atlas.

Colour Constancy: The ability of a coloured object to give the same general colour impression when viewed under different illuminants, the observer having been chromatically adapted in each case.note: the most common comparison is made between the impression under artificial light, e.g., Tungsten filament, and that under daylight.

Colour quality: A specification of colour in terms of both hue and saturation, but not luminance.

Colour value; tinctorial value: The colour yield of a colorant, compared with a standard of equal cost. Note: it is usually determined by comparing the cost of coloration at equal visual strength. Comparisons are normally made between products of similar hue and properties.

Colour yield; tinctorial yield: The depth of colour obtained when a standard weight of colorant is applied to a substrate under specified conditions.

Combed: Refers to a process in the manufacture of cotton and other staple yarns. The fiber is combed to remove foreign matter and the shorter, undesirable fibers, leaving longer, more desirable fibers that become straightened & aligned in parallel before spinning into yarn. Combed yarns are finer, cleaner and more even than those that are not combed.

Combed Yarn: Yarn produced from fibres that have been carded (or prepared) and combed.

Combination Yarn: A yarn in which there are dissimilar component yarns especially when these are of fibre and filaments.

Combing: The straightening and parallelizing of fibres and the removal of short fibres and impurities by using a comb or combs assisted by brushes and rollers.

Commode: A wire frame on which the late 17th century high ladies' headdress, the fontange, was adjusted.

Compact: Refers to a tight, dense fabric with a firm hand.

Composite: A solid product consisting of two or more discrete physical phases, including a binding material (matrix) and a fibrous material.

Composite Yarn: A yarn composed of both staple and continuous-filament components, e.g., Core spun or wrap spun.

Compressive Shrinkage: A process in which fabric is caused to shrink in length e.g., By compression. The process is often referred to as ccs (controlled compressive shrinkage).

Conch or Conque: Sort of large shell-shaped hat in gauze or light crepe, mounted on a wire framework, which was in France mostly worn my widows in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At the same time a similar veil, but generally much bigger and made of pale gauze, seems to have been high fashion in england.

Condensation Polymerization: See polymerization, condensation.

Condense Dye: A dye which, during or after application, reacts covalently with itself or other compounds, other than the substrate, to form a molecule of greatly increased size.

Condenser (ring-doffer or tape): The last section of a condenser card: it divides a broad thin web of fibres into narrow strips, which then consolidated by rubbing into slubbings.

Condenser Card: A roller-and-clearer type of card, as distinct from a flat card, which converts fibrous raw materials slubbings, by means of a condenser.

Condenser Spun: Descriptive of yarn spun from slubbing.

Condition: The moisture present in textile fibres in their raw or partly or wholly manufactured form., (2) To allow textile materials (raw materials, slivers, yarns, and fabrics) to come to hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere or with the standard atmosphere for testing., (3) to add relatively small quantities of water to textile materials (raw materials, slivers, yarns and fabrics)., Note: the object of conditioning is to prepare for testing, or to bring textiles to an agreed moisture content for sale or to facilitate later processing. Among methods used for applying water are: (a) mechanical means during gilling or winding, (b) the use of conditioning machines, and storing in an atmosphere of very high relative humidity.

Conditioner Tube: A tube supplied with steam or hot air surrounding a melt-spun thread-line and located between extrusion and wind-up, whose purpose is to control the fine structure of the yarn., Cone, (1) a conical support on which yarn is wound., (2) a conical package of yarn wound on a conical support.

Contemporary: Currently in vogue.

Continuous Yarn Felting: A process whereby slivers, rovings, slubbings, or yarns are felted on a continuous basis. This is achieved by passing wool-rich material through a unit where it is agitated an aqueous medium where felting takes place. The process is used to produce a yarn, or consolidate a spun yarn.

Continuous-Filament Yarn; Filament Yarn: A yarn composed of one or more filaments that run essentially the whole length of the yarn. Yarns of one or more filaments are usually referred to as monofilament or multifilament respectively.

Conventional Allowance: The percentage that, in the calculation of commercial weight and yarn count or linear density, is added to the oven-dry weight of the textile material, which has been previously washed free of finish. For such material, the conventional allowance is arbitrarily chosen according to commercial practice, and includes the moisture regain and the normal finish that is added to impart satisfactory textile qualities.

Conversational: Whimsical designs or designs with a theme.

Converter; Merchant Converter: An individual who or an organization which locates a supplier and purchases grey fabric, procures its finishing and then re-sells the finished fabric to customers.

Converting; Conversion (tow): The production, from a filament tow or tows, of a staple sliver in such a way that the essential parallel arrangement of the filaments is maintained. Note: the two methods of converting most commonly employed are:, (a) crush cutting, in which the filaments of the tow are severed by crushing between an anvil roller and a cutting roller with raised 'blades' helically disposed around its surface, and, (b) stretch breaking, in which the filaments of the tow are broken by progressive stretch between successive sets of rollers., If subsequently a top is required, further processes of re-breaking and/or gilling may be necessary and the whole operation is then often referred to as tow-to-top converting or conversion.

Cool: A smooth, slick, hand generally associated with synthetics.

Cool Colours: Blue, violet and green are cool / light colors. They are reducing in nature, as seen by the eye they move away from the object thereby increasing it's size. Cool colors have a calm and restful effect.

Cooling Cylinder: An open cylinder, or alternatively a closed cylinder filled with cold water, over which hot fabric is passed to accelerate cooling

Coolmax Brand: A du pont brand of polyester with good wicking qualities allowing for better moisture evaporation. Used in activewear.

Cop: A form of yarn package spun on a mule spindle. The term can also be used to describe a ring tube.

Copolymer, Block: A copolymer in which the repeating units in the main chain occur in blocks, e.g.,-(a)m-(b)n-(a)p-(b)q- where a and b represent the repeating units.

Copolymer, Graft: A copolymer formed when sequences of one repeating unit are built as side branches onto a backbone polymer derived from another repeating unit, e.g.,

Copolymer: A polymer in which the repeating units are not all the same. Usually, but not always, copolymers are formed from two or more different starting materials. For example, chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and 1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene chloride) form a copolymer that contains the repeating units: -ch2-chcl- and -ch2-ccl2-, the different classes of copolymer include random copolymers, alternating copolymers, block copolymers, and graft copolymers.

Cord: A term applied loosely to a variety of textile strands including (a) cabled yarns (b) plied yarns and (c) in structures made by plaiting, braiding or knitting.

Corded: A fabric with a surface rib effect resulting from the use of a heavier or plied yarn together with finer yarns. 2. A yarn made from two or more finer yarns twisted together.

Cordon Yarn: A two-ply union yarn made from a single cotton yarn and a single worsted or woollen yarn.

Cordura Brand: A du pont brand of air textured nylon yarn. Used in luggage and outerwear.

Corduroy: A strong, durable, woven fabric characterized by vertical cut pile stripes or cords with a velvet- like nap. Corduroy is classified by the number of wales or cords to the inch. It is traditionally of cotton but may be cotton blends or other fibers as well. It is common in men's women's and children's apparel especially trousers.

Core Sampling: A method of taking representative samples from bales or packs of textile fibres obtained by inserting a coring tube driven by hand or machine into each package., Note 1: core samples can be used for the determination of yield or fineness, but not fibre length., Note 2: the term mini-core sampling is applied to small-scale sampling.

Core-spun yarn; Core Yarn: Yarn consisting of a central thread surrounded by staple fibres. The yarn has the strength and elongation of the central thread whilst exhibiting most of the other characteristics of the surface staple fibres., Example 1: A sewing thread consisting of a central synthetic continuous-filament yarn surrounded by cotton fibres., Example 2: worsted yarn with bulked-nylon core, e.g., Typically 1/24s worsted count (37 Tex) with approximately 33% of nylon. These yarns are normally produced to give strength and elasticity to the fabric., Example 3: A spun yarn from either natural or man-made fibres incorporating an elastomeric core, these yarns are normally used in stretch fabrics.

Cornet: The cornet headdress is a simplified fontange. The cap has an upstanding frill in front and lappets at the back. The veil is wired to stand up above the forehead. A topknot of wired ribbon is pinned at the front of the cap; fourth quarter of 17th century.

Correct Invoice Weight: The weight of material calculated from the oven-dry weight and the recommended allowance.

Cortex: The inner portion of most animal hair fibres. It consists of spindle-shaped cells.

Cotton: The seed hair of a wide variety of plants of the gossypium family.

Cotton Dust: Dust present during the handling or processing of cotton that may contain a mixture of substances, including smaller particles of ground-up plant matter, fibre, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, non-cotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated during the growing, harvesting and subsequent processing or storage periods.

Cotton Waste: There are two classes of waste known as 'hard' and 'soft', and their treatment differs according to the class. Hard waste is essentially that from spinning frames, reeling and winding machines and all other waste of a thready nature. Soft waste comes from earlier processes where the fibres are relatively little twisted, felted, or compacted.

Cotton Wool: A web or batt of fibres used for medical or cosmetic purposes which is made from cotton and/or viscose rayon.

Cotton-like: Refers to a fabric that feels like cotton.

Cotton-spun: A term applied to staple yarn produced on machinery originally developed for processing cotton into yarn.

Count: Methods of variously expressing the specific length or length per unit mass of a yarn. Also termed linear density; number of yarn; yarn count; yarn number; grist.

Counting glass: A small mounted magnifying glass for examining fabric. The base of the mount generally contains a unit of measurement having an aperture one centimetre square, one inch square or cross-shaped with various dimensions, convenient for counting ends and picks, or courses and wales in a fabric.

Count-strength product (csp): The product of the lea strength, and the actual count of cotton yarn.

Couple: To combine a suitable organic component, usually a phenol or an arylamine, with a diazonium salt to form an azo compound as in the manufacture of azo colorants, in azoic dyeing or in after treatment of direct dyeing.

Course Length (weft-knitted): The length of yarn in a knitted course.

Course, knitted (fabric): A row of loops across the width of a fabric.

Couvrechef: A veil or covering for the head.

Cover: The degree of evenness and closeness of thread spacing. Good cover gives the effect of a plane surface and cannot be obtained with hard-twisted yarns., (2) the degree to which, in fabric finishing, the underlying structure is concealed by the finishing materials or treatments.

Cover factor (knitted fabrics): A number that indicates the extent to which the area of a knitted fabric is covered by the yarn: an indication of the relative looseness or tightness of the knitting.

Cover factor (woven fabrics): A number that indicates the extent to which the area of a fabric is covered by one set of threads. By introducing suitable numerical constants, its evaluation can be made in accordance with any system of counting. For any fabric there are two cover factors: warp cover factor and weft cover factor.

Covered yarn: A yarn made by feeding one yarn under a controlled degree of tension through the axis or axes of one or more revolving spindles carrying the other (wrapping) yarn(s).

Coverstock: A permeable fabric used in hygiene products to cover and contain an absorbent medium., Crabbing, (1) a process used in the worsted trade to set fabric in a smooth flat state so that it will not cockle, pucker, or wrinkle during subsequent wet processing. The fabric is treated in open width and warp-way tension in a hot or boiling aqueous medium, the tension being maintained while the fabric is cooling (see setting), (2) a process of bringing a lustrous weft to cover the surface of a fabric, e.g., A cotton-warp/mohair-weft fabric.

Covert: A medium to heavy twill fabric with a contrast in color between the twill line and the ground . Usually has a mottled or flecked appearance caused by using a warp yarn with 2 or more colors twisted together. The filling generally is of a single color.

Coir Fiber: A coarse fiber extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. Brown coir is harvested from fully ripened coconuts. It is thick, strong and has high abrasion resistance; it is typically used in floor mats and doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles and sacking. White coir fibers are harvested from the coconuts before they are ripe. These fibers are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but also weaker. They are generally spun to make yarn that is used in mats or rope. See also "Natural vegetable fibers".

Color Abrasion: Color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often evident in cross-dye shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Color abrasion is often called "frosting".

Colorfastness: A term used to describe a dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, and other environmental conditions.

Colour: a) The characteristic of the visual sensation that enables the eye to distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be caused by differences in the spectral distribution of light rather than by differences in spatial distribution or fluctuations with time.
b) As (a) above, but applied directly to the stimulus or the source (primary or secondary) giving rise to the sensation. (For brevity, the stimulus is often referred to as the colour).
c) The property of an object or stimulus or quality of visual sensation, distinguished by its appearance of redness, greenness, etc., in contradistinction to whiteness, greyness, blackness (i.e. chromatic colour is contradistinctinve to achromatic colour).

Combing: The combing process is an additional step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly parallel form, and additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength, fineness, and uniformity.

Comfort Stretch: The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex, or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction.

Composite Fabric: An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as fiberglass, Kevlar®, or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component (often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together. 

Compression Fabric: A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a moisture transfer environment.

Compression Stretch: The name given to the expansive stretch that is created by the spandex fibers used in the development of a compression fabric.

Condensation Polymer: A polymer obtained when the compounds used in its formation react together, with the elimination of a further compound such as water, formaldehyde or hydrochloric acid.

Condition (n): The amount of moisture present in a textile in its raw, or partly or wholly manufactured form.

Condition (v): a) To allow textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers, yarns and fabrics) to come to hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere, or with the standard atmosphere for testing (q.v.). b) to add relatively small quantities of water to textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers, yarns and fabrics).
NOTE: The object of conditioning is to bring textiles to an agreed moisture content for sale, or to facilitate later processing. Among the methods used for applying water are:
1. mechanical means during gilling (q.v.) or winding;
2. the use of conditioning machines; and
3. storing in an atmosphere of very high relative humidity.

Continuous Filament: A long continuous, unbroken strand of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most manufactured fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate are made in continuous filament form.

Converter: A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.

Corduroy: A fabric, usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave construction. Extra sets of filling yarns are woven into the fabric to form ridges of yarn on the surface. The ridges are built so that clear lines can be seen when the pile is cut.

Core Yarn: A yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber that serves as a core. Core yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber, and the outer wrapped fiber is a textured manufactured fiber such as polyester or nylon.

Core-Spun Yarns: Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been twisted into a yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the strength and resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton. Sewing thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.

Core-Spun Yarn: A yarn produced at the spinning frame by feeding a yarn through the delivery rollers only, simultaneously with the spinning of the staple fibres (q.v.). NOTE: The yarn fed through at the delivery rollers only is usually known as the "core", and the other component is known as the "wrapper". The core may be of continuous-filament yarn or of spun yarn. If the core is of spun yarn, the direction of its twist is usually the same as that of the complete yarn. Core-spun yarns are made for decorative purposes or, more commonly, for strengthening the wrapper for facilitating subsequent processes. When used for strengthening, the core may, after it has served its purpose, be removed by solvent or other chemical action, e.g. the removal of calcium alginate filament yarn by an alkaline scour or of a cotton yarn by carbonising. The core is often retained for strengthening the resultant fabric as is the case if nylon or polyester continuous-filament yarns are used.

Count of Reed: The number of dents (q.v.) per centimetre.

Cotton: A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2 inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1 1/2 inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties, produce the highest quality cotton fabrics.

Count of Cloth: The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven fabric. If a cloth is 64 X 60, it means there are 64 ends and 60 picks per inch in a woven fabric. A cloth that has the same number of ends and picks per inch in woven goods is called a square cloth. 80-square percale, for example, has 80 ends and 80 picks per inch. Pick count is the term that is synonymous with texture or number of filling picks per inch.

Course: The rows of loops or stitches running across a knitted fabric. Corresponds to the weft or filling in woven goods.

Combined Fabric: A fabric composed of two or more preformed layers, at least one of which is a textile fabric, that adhere closely together by means of an added adhesive or by the adhesive properties of one or more of the component layers.

Continuous-Filament Yarn: A yarn composed of one or more filaments that run the whole length of the yarn. NOTE: Yarns of one filament and of more than one filament are known as monofilament and multi-filament yarns respectively.

Cord Fabric (Woven): A rib fabric (q.v.) that has prominent ribs. 
NOTE: a) The ribs are referred to as "cords".
b) Not all fabrics that have prominent ribs are covered by this term.

Continuous Spinning: A system of spinning in which roller delivery, twisting and winding onto a package operate simultaneously and without interruption, as, for example, in cap, centrifugal, flyer and ring spinning.

Cover Factor (Woven Fabric): A number, derived from the number of warp (or weft) threads per unit length and the linear density of the yarns, that indicates the extent to which the area of a woven fabric is covered by the warp (or weft) yarns. NOTE: a) A woven fabric has, therefore, two cover factors, i.e. the warp cover factor and the weft cover factor. b) In the Tex system (q.v.) the cover factor is calculated by the expression: "number of threads per centimetre x 1 divided by the square root of the Tex."

Crash: A Coarse Woven Fabric With A Rough Surface, Made With Thick Uneven Yarns. Used For Table Linens , Draperies, Backings.

Cravat: Wide cloth or piece of lace knotted or tied around the neck. The term was first used in the mid-17th century.

Cravat string: Ribbon used in the 17th century to tie a heavy lace cravat in place; the forerunner of the 18th century solitaire.

Crease: An unintentional fold in a fabric that may be introduced at some stage in processing and that is not readily removed by those means normally available to a garment maker, e.g. steam pressing. (See also crease mark).

Crease Mark: A mark left in a fabric after a crease has been removed, and that may be caused by mechanical damage to fibres at the fold, by variation in treatment owing to the constriction along the fold, or by disturbance of the fabric structure.
Crease-Recovery: The measure of crease-resistance specified quantitatively in terms of crease-recovery angle.

Crease-Resist Finish: A finishing process, usually for cellulosic-fibre fabrics or their blends, that improves the crease recovery and smooth-drying properties. In the process used most extensively, the fabric is impregnated with a solution of a reagent that penetrates the fibres, and, after drying and curing cross-links the fibre structure under the influence of a catalyst and heat. The crease resistant effect is durable to wash and wear.

Crease-Resistance: A term used to indicate resistance to, and/or recovery from, creasing of a textile material during use.

Crease Recovery: A measure of crease resistance specified quantitatively in terms of certain parameters such as crease recovery angle.

Crease Resistance: A term used to indicate the capability of a textile material to resist creases or recover from creases (or both) incidental to use.

Creel: A structure for holding supply packages in textile processing., Crimp, (1) (fibre). The waviness of a fibre. Note: this fibre characteristic may be expressed numerically as the crimp frequency or as the difference between the lengths of the straightened and crimped fibre, expressed as a percentage of the straightened length.(2) (yarn) (UK., Take-up, regain, shrinkage) the waviness or distortion of a yarn that is due to interlacing in the fabric., Note: in woven fabrics, the crimp is measured by the relation between the length of the fabric sample and the corresponding length of yarn when it is removed therefrom and straightened under suitable tension., Crimp may be expressed numerically as (a) percentage crimp, which is 100 divided by the fabric length and multiplied by the difference between the yarn length and the fabric length, and (b) crimp ratio, which is the ratio of yarn length to fabric length. In both methods, the fabric length is the basis, that is to say, 100 for percentage crimp and 1 for crimp ratio. This definition could logically be applied to knitted fabrics or fabrics of pile construction, but it is preferable to employ special terms, e.g., 'stitch length', or 'terry ratio'.

Creepage: A relaxation shrinkage that occurs under normal conditions of storage.

Crepe: A variety of lightweight fabrics characterized by a crinkly surface, obtained either via use of hard twist yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment. Crepes are available today in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends, and in may different constructions.

Crepe: A fabric characterized by an all over crinkled, pebbly, or puckered surface. The appearance may be a result of the use of high twist yarns , embossing , chemical treatment or a crepe weave.

Crepe de Chine: A lightweight plain weave fabric usually of silk or man made filament yarns with a slight crepe texture produces by using high twist yarns. Used in blouses and dresses.

Crepe-back Satin: A satin fabric in which highly twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin-back crepe.

Crepe-Back Satin: A two faced fabric in which one side is crepe and the other satin. Also called satin-back crepe.

Crepey: Refers to a fabric with a pebble like texture.

Crepe Weave: A weave that has a random distribution of floats that produces an all-over pebbled effect, so disguising the weave repeat.

Crepon/Yoryu: A fabric with a pleat-like crinkle effect in the warp ( lengthwise) direction of the fabric, made with high twist yarns.

Cretonne: A plain weave fabric, usually cotton, with a neutral ground and brightly colored floral designs, similar to chintz but with a dull finish and sometimes heavier. Used for draperies and upholstery.

Crewel: A type of embroidery using a loosely twisted 2 ply worsted yarn.

Crimp: a) In Fibre, The waviness of a fibre, i.e. the condition in which the axis of a fibre under minimum external stress departs from a straight line and follows a simple or a complex or an irregular wavy path. NOTE: 1. In its simplest form, crimp is uniplanar and regular, i.e. it resembles a sine wave, but it is frequently much more complicated and irregular. An example of three-dimensional crimp is helical.
2. Crimp may be expressed numerically as the number of waves (crimps) per unit length, or as the difference between the distance between two points on the fibre when it is relaxed and when it is straightened under suitable tension, expressed as a percentage of the relaxed distance.
b) In Yarn, The waviness or distortion of a yarn owing to interlacing in the fabric.
NOTE:1. In woven fabric, the crimp is measured by the relation between the length of the fabric test specimen and the corresponding length of yarn when it is removed therefrom and straightened under suitable tension. The crimp may then be expressed numerically as a percentage or as a ratio, i.e. the ratio of yarn length to fabric length. In both methods, fabric length is the basis.
2. Although this definition could logically be applied to knitted fabrics or fabrics of pile construction, it is usual to employ special terms, e.g. stitch length, terry ratio.

Crimp Contraction: The contraction in length of a previously textured yarn from the fully extended state (i.e., Where the filaments are substantially straightened), owing to the formation of crimp in individual filament under specified conditions of crimp development. It is expressed as a percentage of the extended length.

Crimp Frequency: The number of full waves or crimps in a length of fibre divided by the straightened length.

Crimp Retraction: See Crimp Contraction.

Crimp Stability: The ability of a textured yarn to resist the reduction of its crimp by mechanical and/or thermal stress., Note: crimp stability is normally expressed as the ratio of values of crimp retraction measured before and after a specified mechanical and/or thermal treatment of the yarn.

Crimp, Latent: A crimp that is potentially present in specially prepared fibres or filaments and that can be developed by a specific treatment such as thermal relaxation or tensioning and subsequent relaxation.

Crimped Length: The distance between the ends of a fibre when substantially freed from external restraint, measured with respect to its general axis of orientation.

Crimped Yarn: A continuous-filament yarn that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other fine distortions along the lengths of the filaments., Note 1: the main texturing procedures which are usually applied to continuous-filament yarns made from or containing thermoplastic fibres, are:, (a) the yarn is highly twisted, heat-set and untwisted either as a process of three separate stages (now obsolescent) or as a continuous process (false-twist texturing). In an infrequently used alternative method, two yarns are continuously folded together, heat-set, then separated by unfolding;, (b) The yarn is injected into a heated stuffer box either by feed rollers or through a plasticizing jet of hot fluid (invariably air or steam). The jet process is sometimes known as jet texturing, hot-air jet texturing, or steam-jet texturing;, (c) The yarn is plasticized by passage through a jet of hot fluid and is impacted on to a cooling surface (impact texturing);, (d) The heated yarn is passed over a knife-edge (edge crimping), (now obsolete);, (e) The heated yarn is passed between a pair of gear wheels or through some similar device (gear crimping);, (f) The yarn is knitted into a fabric that is heat-set and then unravelled (knit-deknit texturing);, (g) the yarn is over-fed through a turbulent air stream (air-texturing, air-jet texturing), so that entangled loops are formed in the filaments;, (h) The yarn is composed of bicomponent fibres and is subjected to a hot and/or wet process whereby differential shrinkage occurs., Note 2: procedures (a) and (d) in note i above gives yarns of a generally high-stretch character. This is frequently reduced by re-heating the yarn in a state where it is only partly relaxed from the fully extended condition, thus producing a stabilized yarn with the bulkiness little reduced but with a much reduced retractive power., Note 3: The procedure may also be applied to fibres which are not thermoplastic.

Crinkled: An uneven, wrinkle, or puckered effect on the fabric surface which can be created by a variety of mechanical or chemical finishes, or through the use of high twist yarns.

Crinoline: A Stiff, Open Weave Fabric, Usually Heavily Sized. Used Mainly As Lining Or Interlining.

Crinoline: A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count (few yarns to the inch in each direction). Used as a foundation to support the edge of a hem or puffed sleeve.

Crisp: Describes fabrics with a smooth, clean surface, good body, and a relatively firm hand which may make noise when rustled.

Critical Application Value (cav): In a low add-on easy-care finishing system, the amount of finishing liquor which must be applied to a given fabric to avoid a non-uniform distribution of cross-linking after drying and curing.

Crochet Lace: Lace handmade with a crochet hook usually medallion patterns on a mesh ground.

Crocking: A synonym for 'rubbing' in the sense of the fastness to rubbing of dyes.

Crockmeter: An apparatus for evaluating the colour fastness to rubbing of dyed or printed textiles.

Cross cut: Refers to a corduroy fabric which has the pile cut in a weftwise direction, forming squares or rectangles on the surface.

Cross Dyed: A method of coloring fabric made with strategically placed yarns of 2 or more different fibers. A pre-planned effect becomes visible by dyeing the fabric in different dye baths, one for each of the types of yarn. For example a predominately rayon fabric may have a polyester yarn woven into it in a stripe pattern then dyed in a bath to which only the rayon is sensitive. The polyester stripe will be made to appear since it remains undyed. The stripe may then be colored by dyeing it again in a bath of a different color to which only the polyester is sensitive. Heather effects may be achieved by mixing more than one fiber in a single yarn then cross dyeing.

Cross Dyed & Overprinted: A cross dyed fabric which has also had a design printed on it.

Cross Dyeing: The dyeing of one component of a mixture of fibres of which at least one is already coloured.

Cross Lapping; Cross laying: the production of a nonwoven web or batt from a fibre web by traversing it to and fro across a lattice moving at right angles to the direction of traverse.

Crossbred: A term applied loosely to wool, tops, yarns or fabrics produced from wools of medium quality.

Cross-Linking: The creation of chemical bonds between polymer molecules e.g., In a fibre or in a pigment binder this generally restricts swelling and alters elastic recovery.

Cross-Wound Package: A package characterized by the large crossing angle of the helixes of sliver or yarn.

Crows' feet: Wrinkles of varying degrees of intensity and size that resemble the pattern of birds' footprints and that have been caused by the overloading of a wet-processing machine.

Crocking: The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent, the use of incorrect dyes or dyeing procedures, or the lack of proper washing procedures and finishing treatments after the dyeing process.

Crumbs: A term used to describe shredded alkali-cellulose.

Crush Cutting: A process in converting in which the filaments of the tow are severed by crushing between an anvil roller and a cutting roller with raised 'blades' helically disposed around its surface.

Crushed: A finish that creates a planned irregular disturbance on the surface of the fabric, usually by mechanical means.

Crystallinity: Three-dimensional order in the arrangement of atoms and molecules within a chemical phase. Most chemical compounds of low molecular weight may be obtained in a state of virtually complete three-dimensional order. When polymers crystallize, in general the product consists of regions of high order (crystallites), regions of low order (amorphous regions), and regions of intermediate order. Different methods of measuring the degree of crystallinity (e.g., Density, wide-angle x-ray scattering, enthalpy measurement) emphasize different aspects and therefore lead to quantitatively different values. In recent years the simple concept of crystalline and amorphous regions has been questioned and terms such as para-crystalline have been introduced.

Csp: See count-strength product.

Culottes: French word for rather tight breeches.

Cupra (fibre) (USA): The term used originally, and still in the U.S.A., To describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by the cuprammonium process. The ISO preferred classification for these fibres is cupro.

Cuprammonium Rayon (fibre): A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by the cuprammonium process.

Cupro (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by the cuprammonium process.

Curing: A process following addition of a finish to textile fabrics in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction. Heat treatment for several minutes has been standard, but higher temperatures for short times (flash-curing) and long times at low temperatures and higher regain (moist curing) are also used.

Curing: a) A process that follows the addition of a finish to a textile fabric and in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction.
NOTE: Heat treatment for several minutes is common, but higher temperatures for short times and high moisture regain (moist curing) are also used.
b) The vulcanisation of rubber, whether by the application of heat or by passing through cold sulphuryl chloride solution (cold cure).

Cut Velvet: Jacquard fabric consisting of a velvet design on a plain ground. Also called beaded velvet. Used in evening wear and home furnishings.
Cuticle: The surface layer of animal hair fibres, consisting of flat overlapping scales.

Cuprammonium: A process of producing a type of regenerated rayon fiber. In this process, the wood pulp or cotton liners are dissolved in an ammoniac copper oxide solution. Bemberg rayon is a type of Cuprammonium rayon.

Cuprammonium Fluidity: The reciprocal of the dynamic viscosity of a solution of cellulose of prescribed concentration in a cuprammonium solvent of prescribed composition, measure under precisely defined conditions. NOTE: These solutions commonly exhibit non-Newtonian flow behaviour. Cuprammonium fluidity does not therefore have absolute physical significance as does the fluidity of a Newtonian liquid, although it has hitherto been expressed in reciprocal poises. It is considered that it should be regarded as an empirical quantity and because of this, the results are given in units of cuprammonium fluidity and are not linked to a specific unit. 

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