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Letter D - English Textile Terms Dictionary

Letter D

Dacron: Du pont brand of polyester fiber.

Damask: A figured fabric in which different weaves, generally satin and sateen (although twill or other binding weaves may sometimes be introduced) interchange to form the pattern.

Damask: A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.

Damask: Originally a silk fabric made in damascus, only one colour, with patterns of flowers, branches and animals in satin finish contrasting with the slightly textured taffeta background. Multi-coloured damasks are called lampas.

Deacetylated acetate (fibre) (generic name): A term used to describe fibres of regenerated cellulose obtained by almost complete de-ethanoylation (deacetylation) of a cellulose ethanoate (acetate).

Dead Cotton: An extreme form of immature cotton with a very thin fibre wall., Note: commonly the cause is excessively slow secondary growth, resulting in many of the fibres having developed only a thin secondary wall by the time the boll opens. It is sometimes caused by premature 'death' or cessation of growth due to factors such as local pest attack, incidence of some types of disease, or curtailment of the life of the plant itself, resulting in the death of the fibres before the full potential secondary-wall thickening has been reached. Particularly for such fibres there may be no secondary thickening at all. The fibres are weak, brittle and lacking in twist or convolutions, become easily entangled into neps, and are generally lacking in lustre, with a 'dead' appearance, although some fibres without any secondary thickening tend to stick together and show up as small bundles in ginned raw cotton.

Dead Wool: Wool taken from sheep that have died from natural causes

De-aeration: The removal of all undissolved gases and part of the dissolved gases (chiefly air) from solutions prior to extrusion.

Deburring: A process in wool yarn manufacturing for extracting burrs, seeds and vegetable matter from wool. Deburring is carried out mechanically by a burring machine.

Decatising: A finishing process in which the fabric is wound tightly onto a perforated roller and either immersed in hot water, which is also circulated through the fabric (wet decatising) or has steam blown through it (dry decatising). Note: decatising is used mainly to improve the handle and appearance of worsted fabrics.

Decitex: A unit of the Tex system.

Deco: Refers to designs which suggest the art deco style of the 20's and 30's, characterized by bold outlines and streamlined shapes.

Decrystallised Cotton: Sotton treated with reagents such as zinc chloride, concentrated caustic soda solutions or amines to reduce the degree of crystallization.

Deep dyeing: Descriptive of fibres modified so as to have greater uptake of selected dyes than normal fibres, when the two are dyed together., Degreasing, (1) the removal of grease, suint, and extraneous matter from wool by an aqueous or solvent process., (2) the removal of natural fats, waxes, grease, oil, and dirt from any textile material by extraction with an organic solvent., Degree of orientation, the extent to which the macromolecules composing a fibre or film lie in a predominant direction in the case of fibres the predominant direction is usually the fibre axis. Note 1: there are several methods for assessment of the degree of orientation, of which measurement of birefringence is the most usual., Note 2: The degrees of orientation of crystalline and non-crystalline regions may be evaluated separately.

Deep Pinning: Conspicuous pin-stenter marks in the body of the fabric (i.e. clear of the selvedge), and that therefore reduce the usable width of the fabric.

Defect: a) article, a fault that reduces the ability of the article to perform its intended function or, if it were to appear in a prominent position in the article, would readily be seen and objected to by an ordinary person who might contemplate purchasing the article in a retail shop.
b) fabric, a fault that, if it were to appear in a prominent position in a garment or manufactured article made from the fabric, would readily be seen and objected to by an ordinary person who might contemplate purchasing such a garment or manufactured article in a retail shop.

Defective: A test sample or a test specimen or a set of test specimens that fails in one or more respects to comply with the relevant requirements of the specification or standard reference sample.

Degree of Crystallinity: The amount, expressed as a percentage by mass, or linear polymer that is generally present in a crystalline form, the remainder of the polymer being present in an amorphous state. Note: there are several methods used for the determination of the amount of crystalline polymer in a man-made fibre. The results obtained differ according to the method used, so comparisons should be limited to one method of measurement.

Degree of polymerisation (dp): The average number of repeating units in the individual macromolecules in a polymer., Note: in general, this average will depend on the basis on which it is calculated, which should stated. For example, it may be based upon a mass (weight) or a number average.

Degree of orientation: The extent to which the molecules in a fibre lie in the direction of the fibre length.

Degumming: The removal of sericin ( silk gum) from silk yarns or fabrics, or from silk waste prior to spinning, by a controlled, hot, mildly alkaline treatment intended to have little effect on the underlying fibroin.

Delicate: Referring to a fine, light hand with good drape.

Delustrant: A particulate material added before extrusion to subdue the lustre of a man-made fibre. Note 1: The anatase form of titanium dioxide is commonly used for this purpose. Note 2: terms used to indicate the level of delustrant in man-made fibres include: clear, bright, semi-dull, semi-matt, dull, matt, extra dull, and super dull.

Denier: The weight in grams of 9000 metres of a filament or yarn etc. The denier system was common as the standard for all continuous-filament yarns. Yarns spun from man-made staple fibre were usually designated by the count system appropriate to the method of spinning, although the fineness of individual fibres composing the spun yam was denoted by denier. The recommended system is the Tex system with the unit of decitex for filament yarns.

Denier: A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the united states, this measurement is used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.

Denier per filament: The size of an individual filament, or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous, the dpf is determined by dividing the yarn denier per filament by the number of filaments in the yarn.

Denim: A firm 2x1 or 3x1 twill weave fabric often having a whitish tinge obtained by using white filling yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier weight denims, usually blue, are used for dungarees, work clothes, and men's and women's sportswear. Lighter weight denims have a softer finish and come in a variety of colors and patterns for sportswear.

Denim: A firm 2/1 or 3/1 right hand twill usually with a colored warp and white or natural weft. Commonly made of cotton or cotton blends in a variety of weights.

Dent: The unit of a reed that contains a reed wire and the space between adjacent reed wires.

Depitching: The removal of tar or other branding substances from wool, usually, though not necessarily, by solvent-extraction.

Depth: That colour quality an increase in which is associated with an increase in the quantity of colorant present, all other conditions (viewing, etc.) Remaining the same.

Depth: The colour quality (q.v.), an increase in which is associated with an increase in the quantity of colorant present, all other conditions (viewing, etc.) remaining the same.

Detergent: A substance that assist the removal of dirt by emulsification or dissolution of the dirt particles and normally has the power of suspending the dirt in the cleansing liquid.

Desizing: The removal of size from fabric.

Detergent: A substance normally having surface-active properties specifically intended to cleanse a substrate.

Detwisted: Descriptive of a yarn of fibres or filaments from which twist has been removed.

Devantire: 17th century women's riding costume split at the back.

Developing: A step in a dyeing or printing process in which an intermediate form of the colorant is converted to the final form (e.g. Oxidation of a vat leuco ester).

Dhila: Loose or baggy. Thus, a dhila payjama, wide and roomy all over.

Dhoti: The traditional Indian dress for the lower part of the body, consisting of a piece of unstitched cloth draped over the hips and legs. Worn in various ways in different parts of the country, alike by men and women.

Diacetate (fibre): A term used to describe fibres made from propanone-soluble (acetone-soluble) cellulose ethanoate (acetate). The ISO generic name is acetate.

Diamond: Referring to designs dominated by diamond shapes.

Diazotize: To convert a primary aromatic amine into the corresponding diazonium salt, by treatment with nitric acid.

Die Swell: The increase in diameter that occurs as a visco-elastic melt or solution emerges from a die or spinneret hole.

Differential Dyeing (fibres): Descriptive of fibres of the same generic class, but that have potentially different dyeing properties from those of the normal fibre.

Differential Dyeing: Usually descriptive of fibres of the same generic class, but having potentially different dyeing properties from the standard fibre.

Diffusion: Movement of substance owing to the existence of a concentration gradient.

Dimity: A lightweight, sheer, plain weave fabric characterized by lengthwise ribs. Sometimes also with crosswise ribs forming a check. Commonly used for curtains, aprons.

Dip: a) An immersion of relatively short duration of a textile in a liquid.
b) the depth of liquor in the inner cylinder of a rotating-cage washing machine.
c) a term sometimes used to describe the treatment of cellulosic material with a chemic (q.v.).

Dip: An immersion of relatively short duration of a textile in liquid., (2) the depth of liquid in the inner cylinder of a rotary washing machine., (3) a laboratory dyeing, usually to develop a dye formula, (u.s.a.).

Direct Dye: An anionic dye having substantivity for cellulosic fibres, normally applied from an aqueous dyebath containing an electrolyte., Direct spinning, (1) (man-made fibre production) integrated polymerization and fibre extrusion without intervening isolation or storage of the polymer., (2) (man-made fibre production) the method whereby tow. Is converted to staple fibre and spun into yarn in an integrated operation., (3) (bast fibre production) a method of dry-spinning bast fibres whereby untwisted slivers are drafted with suitable controls and directly twisted into yarn. Gill spinning and slip-draft spinning systems are particular forms of the method.

Direct Style: A style of printing in one or several colours where the dyes are applied and then fixed by ageing or other appropriate means. The fabric is usually initially white but may sometimes have previously dyed .

Direct Warping: The transference of yarn from a package creel directly on to a beam.

Direct-spun: A term used to describe filaments or yarn produced by direct spinning., (2) descriptive of woollen yarns spun on a mule onto weft bobbins.

Discharge (printing): To destroy by chemical means a dye or mordant already present on a substrate to leave a white or differently coloured design.

Discharge Printed: A dyed fabric is printed with a chemical paste that bleaches out or "discharges" the color to allow white patterns on a dyed ground. By adding a dye to the paste that is not affected by the chemical it is possible to replace the discharged ground color with another color.

Discharging: The destruction by chemical means of a dye or mordant already present on a material to leave a white or differently coloured pattern., Note: this term is also used to cover the removal of gum from silk (see degumming)

Disperse Dye: A substantially water-insoluble dye having substantivity for one or more hydrophobic fibres, e.g. Cellulose acetate, and usually applied from fine aqueous dispersion.

Disperse Dyes: A class of water-insoluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing cellulose acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions.

Dispersion Spinning: A process in which the polymers that tend to an infusible, insoluble, and generally intractable character (e.g., Polytetrafluoroethylene) are dispersed as fine particles in a carrier such as sodium alginate or sodium xanthate solutions that permit extrusion into fibres, after which the dispersed polymer is caused to coalesce by a heating process, the carrier being removed either by a heating or by a dissolving process.

Dissolving Pulp: A specially purified form of cellulose made from wood tissue.

Distressed: Describes a finish that disturbs the surface of the fabric, giving it a used, beaten, or uneven appearance. Often done through sand or stone washing after the fabric has been pigment dyed.

District Check: A category of small check designs, sometimes with contrasting overplaids, originally of Scottish origin. Glen plaids are part of this category.

Disturbed Place: An area where the weave of the fabric has been disarranged, without damage to the yarns.

Dobby: A mechanism attached to a loom for controlling the movement of the heald shafts. Note: it is required when the number of heald shafts or the number of picks in a repeat of a pattern, or both, are beyond the capacity of the tappet shedding.

Dobby: A fabric with small, repeating geometric patterns woven into the surface. 2. An attachment to a loom which controls the harness allowing the weaving of these geometric patterns.

Dobby Weave: A weave that has a pattern that requires the use of a dobby mechanism during weaving.

Dobby Weave: A decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually geometric, that are woven into the fabric structure. Dobbies may be of any weight or compactness, with yarns ranging from very fine to coarse and fluffy. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer. However, some heavyweight dobby fabrics are available for home furnishings and for heavy apparel.

Doeskin: Generally used to describe a type of fabric finish in which a low nap is brushed in one direction to create a soft suede-like feel on the fabric surface. End-uses include billiard table surfaces and men's' sportswear.

Doeskin: A soft fabric with a low, napped finish on one side.

Doctor blade: A straight-edge whose function is to remove surplus material (e.g. filling, coating material, printing paste) from the surface of the rollers used to apply the material or from a fabric surface to which the material was applied.

Doctor-blade streak: A lengthways streak of excess colour or excess coating on a fabric and that has been caused by irregularity between the edge of the doctor blade and the surface of the fabric or roller.

Doffing tube (rotor spinning): An extension to the navel to guide the withdrawn yarn from the rotor.

Dolly: (1) A machine in which fabric pieces sewn end to end are circulated repeatedly through a liquor by means of a single pair of squeeze rollers above the liquor. , (2) a machine in which lace, hosiery, or knitwears are subjected to the action of free-falling beaters while immersed in a detergent solution and carried in a moving rectangular or cylindrical box., (3) an open-width washer, containing 3-5 compartments, originally used for dunging aged cotton prints, and now also used for any open-width washing where a shorter machine than an open soaper is desired.

Dome shaped: En coupole. Round table en guridon. Oval paniers coudes.

Donegal: A plain-weave fabric woven from woollen-spun yarns characterized by a random distribution of brightly coloured flecks or slubs. It was originally produced as a coarse woollen suiting in county donegal.

Donegal tweed: A medium to heavy, plain or twill weave fabric in which colorful yarn slubs are woven into the fabric. The name originally applied to a hand-woven woolen tweed fabric made in donegal, ireland. End-uses include winter coats and suits.

Dope: A solution (spinning solution) of fibre-forming polymer as prepared for extrusion through a spinneret., Note: A spinning solution is often referred to as dope, a term historically associated with cellulose ethanoate (cellulose acetate) solutions as varnishes.

Dope/solution dyed: Manufactured fibers which have been colored by dyeing the polymer solution before it is extruded & spun into yarn.

Dope-dyed: Descriptive of man-made fibres in which colouring matter (e.g., Dye or pigment) has been incorporated before the filament is formed.

Dope-eyed ''mass-coloured, spun-coloured, spun-dyed'': Descriptive of man-made fibres in which the colorant has been incorporated before the filament is formed. Note: preferably referred to as mass-coloured (q.v.).

Doru: Long rope with which the thick woolen coat worn by the gaddis is secured around the waist.

Dosuti: A Hindi word, which literally means 'two threads' used to describe the operation of combining two threads together at a winding machine, in which case the operation is known as 'dosuti winding. When applied to fabric, it means that two warp ends are working in pairs and that two weft threads are placed in the same shed.

Dot: A design dominated by circular spots, which may be of any size, printed or woven into the fabric. Small dots are often called pin dots; medium to large dots may be referred to as aspirin dots, coin dots or polka dots.

Dotted Swiss: A sheer fabric often a lawn or batiste, usually of cotton or cotton blend, with a small dot pattern. The dots are usually woven into the fabric but may be flocked or printed . Used for curtains, children's clothes, dresses.

Dotted swiss: A lightweight, sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small dot flock-like pattern either printed on the surface of the fabric, or woven into the fabric. End-uses for this fabric include blouses, dresses, baby clothes, and curtains.

Double (yarn): See folded yarn, also termed plied yarn

Double Cloth: A fabric consisting of 2 layers woven together on the same loom . The fabrics may be held together with binder threads or interwoven . The 2 layers often are of different patterns, colors or weaves . Used for coatings, sportswear, blankets, upholstery.

Double Cloth: A fabric construction, in which two fabrics are woven on the loom at the same time, one on top of the other. In the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held together using binder threads. The woven patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different.

Double face: A reversible 2 layer fabric, usually with a different color or pattern on each side. Double face is usually a double cloth but some reversible bonded fabrics may be referred to as double face.

Double knit: A weft knit, double layered fabric produced on a machine with 2 sets of needles. Double knits are thicker have more body and are more stable than single knits. As they curl, sag, and shrink less than single knits , they are more suitable for sportswear and tailored garments. They usually are reversible.

Double knit: A fabric knitted on a circular knitting machine using interlocking loops and a double stitch on a double needle frame to form a fabric with double thickness. It is the same on both sides. Today, most double knits are made of polyester, although many lightweight versions are now being made using finer denier yarns and blends of filament and spun yarns.

Double plush carpets: See face-to-face carpets.

Double weave: A woven fabric construction made by interlacing two or more sets of warp yarns with two or more sets of filling yarns. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of either four or five sets of yarns.

Doublings (drawing): The number of laps, rovings, slivers or slubbings, fed simultaneously into a machine for drafting into a single end., Note: doubling is employed to promote blending and regularity.

Dogs-legs: A selvedge that varies in width.
Note: variations in weft tension or lack of control of the warp ends within the selvedge may result in such unevenness. Pulled-in selvedges are caused by pulling in of the edges by isolated tight picks. Dog-legged selvedges are the result of the characteristic gradual change in weft tension that occurs as some types of weft pirn are unwound, regular changes in selvedge width being present at each pirn change.

Doupion: See dupion.

Doupioni: The irregular, uneven, rough silk taken from double cocoons or interlocked cocoons which are reeled together. 2. Fabrics with characteristic slubs made from doupioni silk or made to imitate doupioni silk.

Down: The soft, fluffy fiber or underfeathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in outerwear garments.

Downproof: A fabric which resists the penetration of down. The fabric may be closely woven to be downproof by nature or may be cired or coated to make it downproof.

Draft: (1) When drafting the degree of attenuation calculated either as the ratio of the input and output linear densities, or as the ratio of the surface speeds of the output and input machine components which bring about drafting., (2) to reduce the linear density of a fibrous assembly by drawing, or drafting.

Drafting: (1) the process of drawing out laps, slivers, slubbings, and rovings to decrease the linear density., (2) the order in which threads are drawn through heald eyes before weaving.

Drapey: Refers to a fabric with good drape, that is, one that is supple and falls easily into graceful folds when hung or tailored.

Draping: Draping means to hang or to adorn the body form with loose fabric, and to obtain a body fitted garment by using adequate sewing techniques.

Draw (mule): The cycle of operations from the start of the outward run to the finish of the inward run of the carriage of a spinning or a twiner mule.

Draw (sampling): A sample of fibres abstracted manually from a bulk lot of raw material or sliver with a view to assessing the length and/or distribution of length of fibre within the sample.

Drawing: Operations by which slivers (q.v.) are blended (or doubled), levelled and, by drafting (q.v.), reduced to the stage of roving (q.v.). (in the cotton industry, the term is applied exclusively to processing at one machine, namely the draw frame). Note: various systems of drawing are practised but, with the advent of man-made staple fibres and recent machinery development, the boundaries between the various systems are becoming less distinct. In the worsted industry, the systems differ mainly within the means of fibre control between the major pairs of drafting rollers and the methods of driving the spindles and bobbins, if these are employed.
The various worsted systems are:
A) American system (oil-combed tops).
B) Anglo-continental system (oil-combed tops).
C) cone system (oil-combed tops).
D) continental system (dry-combed tops).
E) open system (oil-combed tops).
F) raper system (oil-combed tops).

Drawing (synthetic polymers): The stretching to near the limit of plastic flow of synthetic fibres of low molecular orientation. Note: this process orientates the polymer chains in the amorphous areas of the fibres in the direction of its length and this results in an increase in the crystalline regions. The ways of carrying out this process are by "hot drawing" or "cold drawing" (i.e. with or without the intentional application of heat).

Draw Mechanism (knitting): A mechanism on a straight-bar knitting machine for converting rotary motion into reciprocating motion for the purpose of laying the yarn and kinking it round the needles.

Draw pin: A stationary pin or guide, which by inducing a localized change in yarn tension and/or temperature may be used to stabilize the position of the draw-point or neck in some processes of drawing of man-made-fibre yarns., Note: for the drawing of some fibre types, e.g., Polyester, a heated pin may be used: with other types, e.g., Nylon, the pin is normally not heated.

Draw Ratio: Machine draw ratio, in a drawing process, the ratio of the peripheral speed of the draw roller to that of the feed roller.: True draw ratio, in a drawing process, the ratio of the linear density of the undrawn yam to that of the drawn yam. : residual draw ratio, the draw ratio required, in draw texturing, to convert a partially oriented yarn into a commercially acceptable product. : natural draw ratio, the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of a filament before and after the neck, when a synthetic filament or film draws at a neck.

Draw roller: The output roller of a zone in which drawing is taking place.

Draw thread (knitting): A thread introduced in the form of one row of loops during knitting which, on removal, permits the separation of articles that are knitted as a succession of units connected together.

Draw threads (lace): Removable threads included in the construction of lace either to act as a temporary support for certain parts of the pattern or to hold together narrow widths or units that are separated subsequently by their removal.

Draw-beaming: See draw-warping, also termed warp drawing (USA.)

Draw-down: In man-made filament extrusion, the ratio of take-up or haul-off speed to the average speed of the spinning fluid as it leaves the spinneret., Note: The terms spin-stretch ratio and extrusion ratio are also commonly used.

Drawing (staple yarn): Operations by which slivers are blended (or doubled) levelled, and by drafting reduced to the state of sliver or roving suitable for spinning. In cotton spinning the term is only applied to processing at the drawframe. Various systems of drawing are practised in modern worsted spinning, but with machinery development, and the greater use of man-made staple fibres, the differences are becoming less distinct. Most modern drawing sets incorporate three passages of pin drafting and a roving process. The systems differ mainly in the means of fibre control between the major pairs of drafting rollers and in the types of output package.

Drawing (synthetic filaments and films): The stretching to near the limit of plastic flow of synthetic filaments or films of low molecular orientation., Note: this process orients the molecular chains in the length direction.

Drawing, cold (synthetic filaments and films): The drawing of synthetic filaments or films without the intentional application of external heat. , note: free drawing of filaments or films at a neck is also referred to as cold drawing even though this may be carried out in a heated environment.

Drawing, hot (synthetic filaments and films): A term applied to the drawing of synthetic filaments or films with the intentional application of external heat.

Drawing-in: The process of drawing the threads of a warp through the eyes of a heald and the dents of a reed.

Drawn yarn: Extruded yarn that has been subjected to a stretching or drawing process that orients the long-chain molecules of which it is composed in the direction of the filament axis. On further stretching, such yarn acquires elastic extension as compared with the plastic flow of undrawn yarn.

Draw-spinning: A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the orientation is introduced prior to the first forwarding or collecting device

Draw-texturing: A process in which the drawing stage of man-made-yarn manufacture is combined with the texturing process on one machine., Note: The drawing and texturing stages may take place in separate, usually consecutive, zones of a machine (sequential draw-texturing) or together in the same zone (simultaneous draw-texturing).

Draw-twist: To orient a filament yarn by drawing it and then to twist it in integrated sequential stages.

Draw-warping: A process for the preparation of warp beams or section beams from a creel of packages of partially oriented yarn in which the traditionally separate stages of drawing and beaming are combined sequentially on one machine., Also termed draw-beaming; warp drawing (USA.)

Draw-wind: To orient a filament yarn by drawing it, and then to wind it on to a package in an integrated process without imparting twist.
Drawn yarn: Extruded yarn that has been subjected to a stretching or drawing process which orientates the long-chain molecules of which the yarn is composed, in the direction of the filament axis. Note: on further stretching, such yarn possesses elastic extension as compared with the plastic flow of undrawn yarn.

Dress muslin: See muslin.

Dressing (flax): A combing process applied to stricks or pieces of line flax fibre to parallelize the strands, remove naps or bunches of entangled fibres, and square the ends of the pieces by pulling or breaking fibres that protrude from the ends.

Dressing (lace): The operation of stretching lace, net, or lace-furnishing products to size, then drying, after the application of stiffening or softening agents. The stretching and drying may be carried out on either a running stenter or a stationary frame.

Dressing (warp preparation): The operation of assembling yarns from a ball warp, beam, or chain on a beam immediately prior to weaving., Scotch dressing, (1) (dry taping; scotch beaming) a method of preparing striped warps for weaving, suitable for use when long lengths of any one pattern are to be woven. Three operations are involved, (a) splitting-off from stock ball warps (bleached or dyed, and sized) the required number of threads of the required colours,, (b) the winding of the differently coloured warps, each onto a separate 'back' or warper's beam, and, (c) the simultaneous winding of the threads from a set of back beams through a coarse reed onto a loom beam: (2) (dresser sizing; scotch warp dressing) a method of warp preparation, used particular linen industry, which incorporates sizing. Yam in sheet form is withdrawn from two warper's beams (one set at each end of the machine) and wound onto a loom beam at a headstock. Each half of the machine has its own size box and hot- air-drying arrangement., Yorkshire dressing, a method of preparing a striped warp beam for a loom. Four operations are involved, (a) splitting-off from stock ball warps (bleached or dyed, and sized) the required number of threads of the required colours,, (b) the disposition of these threads to pattern in the reed with or without ends from stock grey warps,, (c) the slow and intermittent winding of the threads onto the loom beam, during the process they are tensioned by means of rods and rollers, brushed by hand, and kept and in correct position and if, as is usual, there are two or four ends per reed dent, these are further separated by means of a rod, and , (d) the picking of an end-and-end lease. The process ensures that in the warp all threads will be kept parallel, separated one from another, in their correct position, and correctly tensioned.

Drill: A strong, medium to heavy weight 2x1 or 3x1 warp faced twill usually of cotton. It is similar to denim but drill is usually piece dyed.

Drill: A warp-faced piece-dyed twill fabric that has a stout texture and a higher number of threads per centimetre in the warp than in the weft. Note: some drills are made with five-end satin weave and it is recommended that these be called satin drills.
Drip-dry: Descriptive of textile materials that are reasonably resistant to disturbance of fabric structure and appearance during wear and washing and require a minimum of ironing or pressing.

Drop stitch: Refers to a knit fabric with an open stripe design at set intervals made by removing some of the needles.

Dry: Refers to a fabric that feels lacking in surface moisture or natural lubrication . Cottons are often said to feel dry.

Dry clean: To remove grease, oil, and dirt from garments or fabrics by treating them in an organic solvent, as distinct from aqueous liquors. Examples of suitable solvents are white spirit, trichloroethylene (trichlorethylene) and tetrachloroethylene (perchlorethylene).

Dry-combed top: A wool top containing not more than 1 % of fatty matter based on the oven-dry, fat-free weight as tested by the international wool textile organisation's method which specifies soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane., ,m note: The standard regain of a dry-combed top is 18.25% based on the combined weight of oven-dry, fat-free wool and the fatty matter.

Dry laying: A method of forming a fibre web or batt by carding and/or air laying, followed by any type of bonding process.

Dry spinning (man-made fibre production): conversion of a dissolved polymer into filaments by extrusion and evaporation of the solvent from the extrudate.

Dry-spun: a) descriptive of worsted yarns produced from dry-combed top.
b) descriptive of coarse linen yarn spun from air-dry roving (q.v.).
c) descriptive of man-made filaments the coagulation of which is effected by evaporation of the solvent from the spinning solution. (see also wet-spun (b).

Drying cylinder: Heated, rotating, hollow cylinder(s) around which textile material or paper is passed in contact with it.

Dry-spun: (1) descriptive of a worsted yarn produced from a dry-combed top or of synthetic yams spun on similar machinery., (2) descriptive of coarse flax yarn spun from air-dry roving (cf. Wet-spun ), (3) descriptive of man-made filaments produced by dry-spinning.

Duchesse lace: A guipure lace characterized by floral and leaf designs with very little ground . Heavier threads are intertwined to give raised texture. Used in bridal veils and gowns.

Duck: The name duck covers a wide range of fabrics. A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually made of cotton, and is widely used in men's and women's slacks, and children's play clothes. The most important fabrics in this group are known as number duck, army duck, and flat or ounce duck.

Duck: A closely woven plain-weave fabric, traditionally made from cotton or linen yarns, and similar to canvas. Note: The terms "canvas" and "duck" have become almost synonymous and are often qualified by terms which indicate the use of the fabric, e.g. navy canvas, artist's canvas, duck suiting, belting duck.

Dull: Descriptive of textile materials, the lustre of which has been reduced.

Dull ''matt'': a) descriptive of textile materials the normal lustre (q.v.) of which has been reduced by physical or chemical means.
b) the colour quality, an increase in which may be compared with the effect of the addition of a small quantity of neutral grey dye to the dyestuff, and such that a colour match cannot be made by adjusting the strength.

Dupaluidupallari Top: Small, close-fitting cap made generally of muslin, and consisting of two identical pieces cut slightly rounded and curved towards the top.

Dupatta: Veil-cloth worn by women, draped loosely around the upper part of the body.

Dupion: A silk-breeding term meaning double-cocoon. Hence, an irregular, raw, rough silk reeled from double cocoons.

Dupion Fabric: Originally a silk fabric woven from doupion yarns. The term is nowadays applied to imitations woven from man-made-fibre yarns, but it is recommended that in such contexts the name of the fibre is indicated.

Durability: The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.

Durable Finish: Any type of finish that is reasonably resistant to normal usage and to washing or dry-cleaning (or both).

Durable Finish: Any type of finish reasonably resistant to normal usage, washing, and/or dry-cleaning

Durable Press: More or less interchangeable with the term permanent press, but actually more precise. Durable press implies that the shape retention properties of a garment are excellent and durable for the life of the garment.

Durable press: A finishing treatment designed to impart to a textile material or garment. The retention of specific contours including creases and pleats resistant to normal usage, washing, and/or dry-cleaning., Note: The treatment may involve the use of synthetic resin, which may be applied and cured either before or after fabrication of a garment, or, in the case of textiles composed of heat-settable fibres, may involve high-temperature pressing.

Durable Water Repellent (dwr): Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning. Typically involves a fabric with a coating.

Duvetyn: Medium to heavy weight twill fabric with a soft, short nap covering the weave. It has a sueded, velvety hand. Originally made of wool or wool blends but may be of cotton or other fibers . Used in suits, coats, millinery.

Dye: A colorant that has substantively (q.v.) for a substrate, either inherent or induced by reactants.

Dye (piece): Dyeing of the fabric into solid colors after weaving or knitting.
Dye (yarn): Dyeing of the yarn into solid colors before weaving or knitting.

Dye: A colorant that has substantivity for a substrate, either inherent or induced by reactants.

Dyed & Overprinted: Refers to fabrics which have been first piece dyed, then printed in colors that are darker than the dyed ground.

Dye-Fixing Agent: A substance, generally organic, applied to a dyed or printed material to improve its fastness to wet treatments.

Dyeing: The treatment with a dye to obtain a persistent modification in the colour of a fibre.

Dye Liquor: The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.

Dye Stain (defect): A discrete area of a colour different from that of the adjacent parts of the fabric.

1 yorum:

i didnt know some of dye term it helps..thanks

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