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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, H - Textile Dictionary

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Letter H 

Habit: In the 17th century it meant for men the suit of clothes all in the same cloth or colour. The court habit in the 17th and 18th centuries meant men's clothes, and the grand habit women's, worn only at court and at festivities where the court was present. 

Hackling (flax): A process in which stricks of scutched flax are combed from end to end, both to remove short fibre, naps (or neps), and non-fibrous material, and to sub-divide and parallelize the fibre strands. 

Hair: Animal fibre other than sheep's wool or silk, note: it is recognized that this definition implies a distinction between sheep's wool and the covering of other animals, notwithstanding the similarity in their fibre characteristics. Thus the crimped form and the scaly surface are not confined to sheep's wool. It seems desirable in the textile industry, however, to avoid ambiguity by confining the term wool to the covering or sheep and to have available a general term for other fibres of animal origin. Normally the less widely used fibres are known by name e.g., Alpaca, mohair, etc., But collectively they should be classed as hair. A difficulty arises when it is desired to distinguish between the fibres of the undercoat and the remainder of the fleece; for instance, between the soft short camel hair used for blankets and the coarse long camel hair used for belting. The term wool is sometimes used for the shorter fibre, qualified by the name of the animal, e.g., Cashmere wool. 

Hairy: Refers to fabrics with a lot of protruding fibers on the surface. 

Hammered Satin: A satin fabric with an allover surface texture that looks like hammered metal. 

Hand: The way the fabric feels when it is touched. Terms like softness, crispness, dryness, silkiness are all terms that describe the hand of the fabric. A good hand refers to shape retention without stiffness. 

Handkerchief Linen: A fine lightweight plain weave fabric of linen or a linen blend. Used in blouses, dresses. 

Handle; hand (u.s.): The quality of a fabric or yarn assessed by the reaction obtained from the sense of touch., Note: it is concerned with the subjective judgement of roughness, smoothness, harshness, pliability, thickness, etc. 

Handle: The subjective assessment of the roughness, smoothness, harshness, pliability, thickness, etc., of a textile material and that is obtained by the sense of touch. 

Hank: A synonym for skein. Textile linear material in coiled form, (2) a definite length of sliver, slubbing, roving, or yarn, e.g, in the metric system it is 1000 metres, (3) a synonym for count as applied to sliver, slubbing, or roving. 

Hank Sizing: The application of size solution to yarn in hanks. 

Hard: Describing fabrics with a firm, coarse hand. 

Hard Shell: A high-impact, abrasion-resistant outer fabric, which provides protection from the environment. 

Hardening: Treatment of man-made regenerated-protein filaments so as to render them completely insoluble in cold water and cold dilute saline solutions. 

Harlequin: A design motif dominated by diamond shapes or checks in 3 or more contrasting colors as in a harlequin costume. 

Harris tweed: A woolen tweed fabric hand woven on the outer hebrides islands off the coast of scotland. (harris is one of these islands) genuine harris tweeds are certified by the harris tweed association. 

Haul-off roller; haul-off roll: The first driven roller around which an extruded yarn passes after leaving the spinneret, and whose surface speed determines the spin-stretch ratio. 

Haute Couture: Hi-fashion garments (of which only a single price is produced) it's extravagant, it's irrational, it's unique and it's totally unaffordable. 

Head (jute): One of a number of bunches of raw jute forming a bale. The heads are each given a twist and folded over before being made into the bale. 

Heat set finish (heat sealing): A process of heat finishing that will stabilize many manufactured fiber fabrics in order that there will not be any subsequent change in shape or size. Heat setting is used to permanently impart a crease, a pleat, or durability into a fabric or garment a finish that will remain through repeated washings and dry cleanings. 

Heat setting: The process of conferring stability of form upon fibres, yarns, or fabrics, usually by means of successive heating and cooling in moist or dry conditions. 

Heat transfer printed: A method of printing fabric by transferring a design from a paper to fabric by passing them together through heated rollers or a heated press. Also called sublistatic printing or sublimation printing. 

Heather: See melange/heather. 

Heather: A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (for example, black and white may be blended together to create a grey heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns. 

Heather Mixture or Blend: Combinations of colors, stock-dyed to provide a mottled or melange type of yarn in woolens such as homespun, tweed, cheviot, shetland, etc. 

Heavy Weight: Also called expedition weight. Most often use din base layers. Thick and warm, it is usually brushed on the inside for warmth and wicking, and smooth on the outside to protect. 

Hemp: A coarse, durable bast fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant. Used primarily in twines and cordages, and most recently apparel. 

Hemp, true: A fine light-coloured, lustrous, and strong bast fibre, obtained from the hemp plant, cannabis sativa l., note: The colour and cleanliness vary considerably according to the method of preparation of the fibre, the lower grades being dark cream and containing much non-fibrous matter. The fibre is obtained by retting. Its principal use is in twine and cordage, but some of the finer grades are used in weaving. The fibre ranges in length from 1 to 2.5 m (3 to 8 ft). The term 'hemp' is often incorrectly used in a generic sense for fibres from different plants, e.g., Manila 'hemp' (abaca) from musa textilis nee; sisal 'hemp' from agave sisalana perrine; sunn 'hemp' (sunn fibre) from crotalaria juncea l. 

Henequen: The fibre obtained from the leaf of agava fourcroydes lemaire. 

Herringbone: A broken twill weave in which the twill line reverses regularly forming zig zag v's. Also called fishbone. 

Herringbone: A combination of twill weaves in which the direction of twill is so reversed (usually by drafting) as to produce stripes that resemble herring bones. 

Herringbone (herringbone twill): A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals, producing a zig- zag effect. 

Hessen: See barras. 

Hessian: See burlap/hessian. 

High Charged System: A method of dry cleaning in which an oil-soluble reagent such as petroleum sulphonate is added to the solvent so that a significant amount of water can be added to obtain a substantially clear dispersion of water in the solvent. In a high-charged system the concentration of added reagent, a so-called detergent is 4% while, in a low-charged system the concentration ranges from % to 2%. 

High-Bulk Yarn: A yarn that has been treated mechanically, physically or chemically so as to have a noticeably greater voluminosity or bulk. 

High Count: Refers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric. 

High Twist: Refers to yarn that are manufactured with a relatively high number of turns per inch. This may be done to increase the yarn strength or to give the fabric a crepey texture or hand. 

High Loft: A term given to a fiber structure that contains more air then fiber. It is a lofty, low-density material that is used in such applications as fiberfill, insulation, etc. 

High/low: Pile fabrics that have variation in pile height 2 a corduroy with wales of 2 or more different widths. 

High-temperature dyeing: Dyeing under pressure higher than atmospheric pressure with the object of raising the temperature of the dye liquor above its normal boiling point. Note: The term "pressure dyeing" in this connection is deprecated. (see also pack dyeing). 

High-speed spinning (melt spinning): A melt spinning process in which filaments are drawn down and collected at high speeds. 

High Visability Fabrics: Fabrics that contain fluorescent materials in order to make the wearer visible in dim and dark lights. These fabrics have the ability to reflect on-coming lights, which cause them to glow in the dark. 

Hog wool; hoggett wool: The first clip from a sheep not shorn as a lamb., Also termed tag/teg wool (obsolescent). 

Holland/shadecloth: A plain weave fabric similar to sheeting with a stiff sometimes glazed finish. Often of linen or cotton. Frequently used for shades. 

Hollow Fiber: Manufactured fiber made with a hollow center. 

Hollow Filament: A man-made fibre continuous filament or fibre with a single continuous lumen. 

Hollow Filament Fibers: manufactured, continuous filament fibers that have a center void, which has been created through the introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution, or by melt spinning through specially designed spinnerets during production. 

Hologram: A three dimensional effect produced with a laser that changes with the angle of view and reflects light in a striking way. Often printed on reflective material. 

Homespun: A plain weave fabric loosely woven with coarse uneven yarns that look as if they were spun by hand. 

Homopolymer: A polymer in which the repeating units are all the same (cf. Copolymer). 

Honan: A high quality, plain weave pongee fabric made with wild silk from henan in eastern china. 

Honeycomb: A pique fabric with a waffle or cellular appearance. May be woven or knit. 

Honeydew: The result of infestation of growing cotton by aphids of whitefly. It takes the form of more or less randomly distributed droplets of highly concentrated sugars, causing cotton stickiness. 

Hopsack: See basket weave/hopsack. 

Hopsacking: Popular woolen or worsted suiting fabric made from a 2- and-2 or 3-and-3 basket weave. 

Hopsack Weave: A modification of a plain weave in which two or more warp yarns weave together as one and two or more weft yarns weave together as one. Note: The basic hopsack weaves may be modified in a number of ways, such as: 
A) by introducing additional interlacings to give a firmer cloth, e.g. stitched hopsack weave; 
B) by arranging the interlacing in diagonal lines, e.g. twilled hopsack weave. 

Horsehair: The long and lustrous hair taken from the mane and tail of horses. One of the most common uses is in blends with other fibers for hair canvas interfacings. 

Hose (narrow fabric): A tubular woven fabric for conveying liquid under pressure., Note: hose is manufactured in both unlined and lined forms. When unlined, the weave is plain and the material is generally flax or hemp with a weaving density so arranged that when the fibres swell on wetting, the fabric becomes tight enough to reduce percolation under pressure to a negligible amount. For lined hose, fibres other than flax or hemp may be used in a plain or twill weave. Light-weight hose woven from synthetic yams may incorporate an independent tubular plastic lining, which is introduced. 

Hosiery: Knitted coverings for the feet and legs., (2) formerly in the uk., The term was used in the generic sense of all types of knitted fabrics and, goods made up therefrom. 

Hosiery Knitting Nachine: A knitting machine for the production of hosiery. Most are small-diameter latch-needle circular knitting machines. 

Hot Drawing (synthetic filaments and films): A term applied to the drawing of synthetic filaments or films with the intentional application of external heat. 

Hot Mercerization: See mercerization. 

Hottenroth Number: A measure of the degree of ripening of viscose, note: A hottenroth number is expressed as the number of milliliters of 10% ammonium chloride solution that it is necessary to add to a somewhat diluted viscose (solution) to induce incipient coagulation under standard conditions. 

Houndstooth: A pointed broken check design. Most commonly a woven produced with contrasting yarns in groups or multiples of 4, woven in a 2x2 twill. Sometimes called dogstooth. 

Houndstooth check: A variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns. This check pattern is often used in clear-finished worsted, woolen dress goods, etc. 

Huarizo: Alpacas and llamas can successfully cross-breed and the resulting offspring are called huarizo, which are valued for their unique fleece and gentle dispositions. 

Huckaback: A soft toweling fabric with short, loosely twisted filling floats to aid absorption, and a birdseye or honeycomb surface texture. It is sometimes embroidered. 

Hue: That attribute of colour whereby it is recognized as being predominantly red, green, blue, yellow, violet, brown, bordeaux, etc. 

Hue: Is the shades and degrees of color. 

Hue: The attribute of colour whereby it is recognised as being predominately red, green, blue or yellow, etc. 

Hurluberlu or hurlupe: Appeared about 1671, a female hairstyle in which short curls covered the entire head. 

Husks (silk): Silk waste remaining on cocoons at the bottom of the basin after reeling. 

Hydrolysis: The chemical decomposition of a substance by water. 

Hydrophilic: Having an affinity for water. 

Hydrophilic fibers: Fiber that absorb water easily, take longer to dry, and require more ironing. These fibers denote a finish that improves wearing comfort. 

Hydrophobic Fibers: Fiber that lack the ability to absorb water. These fibers denote a finish normally applied to create water-repellent products. 

Hydrophobic: Having no affinity for water. 

Hygral expansion: The reversible changes in length and width of fabrics containing hygroscopic fibres as a result changes in regain. 

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