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Letter B - Textile Dictionary

Letter B
B

Baby Alpacer: See alpaca fibre.

Back Waist Length: The dimension on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.

Backtanning: An after-treatment to improve the wet fastness of dyed or printed silk or nylon, using either natural or synthetic tanning agents.

Bactericide: Kills bacteria.

Bacteriostat: Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria growth.

Badla: Flat metallic wire, often silver-gilt, used in brocading and embroidery.

Baghal Bandi: A kind of tunic or jacket, worn shorts and fastened under the armpits.

Balabar: An outer garment, worn by men, related in shape to the coat-like ashcan.

Balagny Cloak: First half of 17th century, cloak or cape with wide collar, in france named after a military hero.

Balanced Stripes: A design of stripes that are even in width and spacing.

Baldrick: Sword hanger, usually decorated with exquisite embroidery, (often metal thread embroidery) and worn from the right shoulder to the left hip, usually over the waistcoat or earlier bolero-style doublet, but under the coat or justaucorps. Frequently worn over the coat to show off the embroidery, when the baldrick had become very broad and long. The sword (rapier, later also dress-sword) hangs very low at the knees.

Bale Breaker: A machine used for opening cotton direct from a bale. Layers of compressed cotton are taken from a bale and fed into a machine where the tearing action of two coarse spiked rollers moving in opposite directions, produces a more open mass of tufts.

Bale Dyeing: (1) dyeing of loose stock ( usually synthetic-polymer fibre ) in the form of an unpacked bale.,(2) in the usa, a low cost process for dyeing cotton fabric to produce a coloured warp and white weft.

Bandanna: A print design characterized by white or brightly colored motifs on a dark or bright ground, most often red or navy. Done by discharge or resist printing but originally done in india by tie dyeing. 2. A fabric, usually cotton with such a design.

Bandelier: See baldrick.

Bandhani: A process of patterning cloth by tie-dyeing in which the design is reserved on the undyed cloth by tying small spots very tightly with thread to protect them from the dye. Especially popular in rajasthan and gujarat.

Banyan: Name given in england to men's jacket in indian cloth. The term is mostly used for indoor garments 'dressing gowns'.

Bar (woven fabric): A band (q.v.) that runs with clearly defined edges and that differs in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric. (it may be shady and may or may not run parallel with the picks). Bar is a general term that covers the following:
A) pick bar: 1. Starting place <set mark, stop mark> a prominent band in a woven fabric that has one clearly defined edge and that gradually merges into normal fabric, and is caused by an abrupt change in pick spacing followed by gradual reversal to normal pick spacing. Such a bar occurs on restarting the loom without sufficient care after:
I) pick finding,
II) uneven weaving or pulling-back, or
III) prolonged loom stoppage.
Note: a) these bars may also be referred to as "standing places" or "pulling-back places" if the precise cause is unknown.
b) in knitting, the band has several courses containing stitch lengths longer than in adjacent normal courses and has resulted from a machine stop that has caused changes in warp tension.
2. Weaving bar: A band that usually shades away to normal fabric at both its edges. Note:it owes its appearance to a change in pick spacing, and may repeat at regular intervals throughout an appreciable length or even the whole length of the piece, and is the result of some mechanical fault in the loom, e.g. faulty gearing in the take-up motion, bent beam gudgeons, uneven or eccentric beam ruffles, uneven bearing surfaces at somepoint in the let-off motion, etc. Bars of this type associated with the take-up or let-off motions are also referred to as "motion marks".
B) shade bar: A band that has developed a different colour from the adjacent fabric during (or subsequent to) dyeing and finishing, owing to damage to (or contamination of) otherwise normal fabric or weft yarn prior to weaving.
C) tension bar: A band composed of weft yarn that has been stretched more (or less) than the normal weft prior to or during weaving. Note: this abnormal stretch may have been imposed during winding by faulty manipulation or by some mechanical fault in the loom; during weaving by incorrect tensioning in the shuttle; or may have arisen owing to faulty yarn having been excessively moistened at some stage and stretched more than the normal yarn under normal applied tensions. It may appear as a cockled bar in those cases where stretch has been sufficient. (see also cockle (fabric).
D) weft bar: A band that is solid in appearance, runs parallel with the picks and contains weft that is different in material, count, filament, twist, lustre, colour or shade from the adjacent normal weft. Barathea: A fabric of pebbled appearance, usually of twilled hopsack weave or broken-rib weave and used for a variety of clothing purposes.

Barathea: An indistinct twill or broken rib- usually a twilled hopsack weave- with a fine textured, slightly pebbled surface. Often of silk or silk blended with wool, used for neckties, women's fine suits and coats men's and women's evening wear.

Bare Pychon ka Pyjama: A pyjama (q. V) with wide, flared legs.

Bark Cloth: Originally referred to fabric made from the bark of trees. Now the term is used to describe fabric with a surface texture resembling tree bark.

Barras: A coarse linen fabric similar to sackcloth; originally produced in holland.

Barrier Fabric: Fabrics that are barriers to dust , dust mites and associated allergens.

Ballistic: A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used in apparel, packs and gear.

Bamboo Fabric: A natural textile made from the pulp of bamboo grass, it is considered sustainable, because the bamboo plant grows quickly and does not require the use of herbicides and pesticides to thrive. However, bamboo fiber is produced through the cellulosic process. Bamboo fabric retains many of the same qualities it has as a plant, including excellent wicking ability that pulls moisture away from the skin. It also retains antibacterial qualities, reducing bacteria that often thrives on clothing, which causes unpleasant odors.

Band (rocap): A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the band is a separate lining ''made from pcketing fabric'' and interlining.

Barre (knitted fabric): A clearly defined band (q.v.) or bands that run (s) full width across an open-width fabric or spirally in a tubular fabric, and differ (s) in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric as the result of variation of yarn characteristics. Note: when the yarn is of a different colour (owing to differential dyeing) from that of the rest of the fabric, that defect is termed "barriness).

Barré: An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process.

Base Layer: The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.

Basket Weave: A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics can be produced. Examples of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth.

Bast Fiber: A natural fiber collected from the inner bark surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonic plants. Most bast fibers are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, including flax, jute, hemp and ramie, but can include wild plants as well. Fibers typically have higher tensil strength than others kinds and are therefore used for textiles like ropes, yarn, paper, composite materials and burlap. While labor intensive, its production is considered more eco-friendly than the production of artificial fibers which are petroleum based.

Bas de cotte / de jupe / de robe: In the second half of the 17th century this term was used for the lower part of the petticoat or skirt, which went with the petticoat or skirt body, covered by the gown body.

Basic Dye: A cationic dye characterized by its substantivity for basic-dyeable acrylic and basic-dyeable polyester fibres, especially the former. The term was originally applied to tannin-mordant cotton dyes.

Basin waste; basines: the silk waste consisting of cocoons that could not be completely reeled because of too frequent breaks in the thread.

Basket Stitch: A knit construction with mostly purl loops in the pattern courses to give a basket weave look.

Basket Weave/hopsack: A variation of plain weave in which 2 or more yarns in both the warp and weft are woven side by side to resemble a basket.

Basques: Mid-17th century. French word for short tabs at bodices and male doublets that extended below the waist. Those jackets with basques were worn in combination with skirts instead of gowns.

Bast fibre: fibre obtained from the stems of various plants.

Batch (lot): A group of units of products of the same type, structure, colour and finish, class and composition, manufactured under essentially the same conditions and essentially at the same time, and submitted at any one time for inspection and testing.

Batchwise Processing: The processing of materials as batches or lots in which the whole of each batch/lot is subjected to one stage of the process at a time.

Batik: A traditional indonesian dyeing process in which portions of fabric are coated with wax and therefore resist the dye. The process can be repeated to achieve multi-color designs. Fabric usually has a veined appearance where the dye has gone through the cracks in the wax.

Batiste: A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses and dresses.

Batiste: A sheer, fine, soft, light weight, plain weave fabric usually of combed cotton or polyester/cotton. It often has lengthwise streaks due to the use of 2 ply yarns. Used for shirts blouses dresses nightwear and lingerie. 2. A lightweight smooth all wool fabric. 3.a sheer silk fabric.

Battenberg: Coarse form of renaissance lace either hand or machine made: from linen braid or tape and linen thread, assembled together to form various designs.

Bave: The silk fibre complete with its natural gum ( sericin ) as it is withdrawn from a cocoon. It is composed of two brins.

Beaded: Referring to a fabric embellished with beads.

Beading: Variety of insertion laces or embroideries having rows of holes through which ribbon is laced.

Beating-up: The third of the three basic motions in weaving, in which the pick of the weft yarn(s) left in the warp shed is forced to the fell (q.v.) of the fabric.

Bedford Cord: Strong ribbed weave fabric with raised lines or cords produced by warp stuffing threads. May be wool, silk, cotton, rayon or combination fibers. Warp pique is a lighter weight. Bedford cord fabric used for dress goods, upholstery and work clothes. First made in america in new bedford, massachusetts, hence its name.

Bedford Cord: A fabric that, owing to the nature of the weave, shows rounded cords in the warp direction with pronounced sunken lines between them. Note: the weave on the face of the cords is usually plain, but other weaves may be used. There are weft floats that determine the width of the cords on the back, and wadding ends may be used to accentuate the prominence of the cords.

Beading Lace: A machine made lace with a row of openwork holes designed for the insertion of a decorative ribbon.

Beaver Cloth: A high quality, heavy, soft wool cloth with a deep, smooth nap. Used in overcoats.

Bedford Cord: A woven fabric constructed to show pronounced rounded cords in the warp direction with sunken lines between them. Used in trousers, uniforms, hats, upholstery.

Beet: A bundle or sheaf of tied flax crop or straw.

Beetled: A finishing process in which a fabric usually linen or cotton is pounded to produce a hard flat surface with a sheen.

Bellies (wool): The coarser quality of wool from the underside of sheep.

Bemberg: Brand of cupramonium rayon.

Bengaline: A durable plain weave fabric characterized by widthwise cords formed by using fine warp yarns and course weft yarns, used in dresses, coats, suits, ribbons, draperies.

Bengaline: A sturdy warp-faced fabric with pronounced crosswise ribs formed by bulky, coarse, plied yarns or rubber thread. Filling is not discernible on back or face of goods. Originating in bengal, india, it is used mainly in coatings, mourning ensembles, and women's headwear. When cut to ribbon widths, it is called grosgrain.

Bias: Any direction in the fabric which does not exactly flow in the direction of the weft yarn (vertical yarns) or warp yarns (horizontal yarns) of a fabric. A true bias makes an angle of 45 degree across the length and width of a fabric, fabric cut on a bias has maximum stretch.

Bicomponent Fibre: A man-made fibre having two distinct polymer components. Both components are themselves usually fibre forming. Wool and some other animal fibres are sometimes considered to be bicomponent since they possess a side-by-side configuration of the ortho- and para-cortex which results in crimp in the fibre.

Bicomponent Fibre: A fibre formed by the conjunction at a spinning jet, of two fibre-forming polymers of different properties.
Note: a) the two components may be caused to merge approximately side by side (bilaterally), concentrically or as fibrils of one component in a matrix of the other. An example is the production of crimped fibre, e.g. a combination of polymers of different contractive properties.
B) although formed by a natural process, wool and related animal fibres may exhibit a comparable dual structure of the cortical cells.

Bicomponent Fiber: Manufactured fiber made of continuous filaments, and made of two related components, each with different degrees of shrinkage. The result is a crimping of the filament, which makes the fiber stretchable.

Billard Cloth: The highest grade of material made from the best of stock: saxony, silesia, or australia merino wool. Two up and one down twill weave is used. Cloth must be even and smooth for its use as covering for billiard tables.

Binche Lace: A lace in which the lace motifs are appliqud to a machine made net ground. Originally made in binche Belgium.

Birdseye: A general term for a fabric with a surface texture of small, uniform spots that suggest bird's eyes. Can be woven or knit. 2 a design that suggests a bird's eyes.

Birefringence: The difference between the refractive index of a fibre measured parallel to the fibre axis nii and that measured perpendicular to the fibre axis nl:, dn = nii - nl, birefringence is frequently used as a measure of the orientation of the macromolecules within the fibre.

Biscuit: One of several narrow cylindrical cheeses of yarn wound as a composite package on a single former side by side but not touching. Biscuit packages are used as the take-up in some synthetic-fibre extrusion systems.

Bisu: See husks.

Bi-ply Knitting: See plaited fabric.

Blanket Plaid: A large vividly colored plaid design such as those often found on blankets.

Blaze: See cocoon strippings, also termed keba.

Bleached: Chemical treatment to remove impurities and whiten the fabric. It can be done either in preparation for dyeing and finishing or to obtain clean whites in finished fabric.

Bleaching: The procedure of improving the whiteness of textile material, with or without the removal of natural colouring matter and/or extraneous substances, by a bleaching agent.

Bleaching: A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.

Bleaching: The procedure, other than by scouring only, of improving the whiteness of a textile by decolourising it from the grey state, with or without the removal of the nature colouring matter or extraneous substances (or both). Note: the removal of colour from dyed or printed textiles is usually called stripping (q.v.).

Bleaching Agent: A chemical reagent capable of bleaching, e.g. oxidising agents such as sodium or calcium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, permanganates, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing agents such as sulphur dioxide and sodium bisulphite.

Bleaching Agent: A chemical reagent capable of destroying partly or completely the natural colouring matter of textile fibres, yarns and fabrics, and leaving them white or considerably lighter in colour. Examples are oxidizing and reducing agents. Amongst the former, hydrogen peroxide is widely used.

Bleeding: loss of dye from a coloured textile in contact with a liquid, leading to the coloration of the liquid or of adjacent areas (or both) of the same or other textile (s).

Bleeding: the running of color from wet dyed material onto a material next to it, or the running of colors together. Sometimes the property of bleeding is considered an asset as in bleeding indian madras.

Blended yarn: A thread in which the different component fibres are thoroughly mixed.

Blending: A process or processes concerned primarily with efficient mixing of various lots of fibres. Blending is normally carried out to mix fibres, which may be of different physical properties, market values, or colours.

Blends: combining of two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures such as heather, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. Blends of natural and man-made fibers are more important today than ever before and their number is virtually limitless.

Blinding: A marked and undesirable loss of lustre of fibres caused by wet processing.

Blister Fabric: See cloque/ blister fabric.

Blitz: A light to medium weight woven fabric with a filament warp and spun weft. Often has a very fine crosswise rib. Common blends are acetate/rayon and polyester/rayon.

Block Copolymer: A copolymer in which the repeating units in the main chain occur in blocks, e.g.,-(a)m-(b)n-(a)p-(b)q-, where a and b represent the repeating units.

Block Printed: A hand printing method using wood, metal, or linoleum blocks. The design is carved on the blocks , one block for each color. The dye is applied to the block which is pressed or hammered against the fabric.

Blotch Print: Refers to a print in which a large area of uniform color is printed. The printed ground is referred to as the blotch.

Blowing Room: The room in a cotton spinning mill where the preparatory processes of opening, cleaning and blending are carried out.

Bobbin: A cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings (q.v.) or yarns. (the term is usually qualified to indicate the purpose for which it is used, e.g. ring bobbin, twisting bobbin, spinning bobbin, condensor bobbin, weft bobbin).

Bottle bobbin: A bobbin that has a cylindrical barrel and a conical or flanged base, and from which yarn can be withdrawn over the nose, i.e. the top of the barrel. Note: the shape of the fully wound bobbin is that of a cylinder with a conical top.

Bobbin Lace: A handmade lace using a pillow to hold pins around which thread is intertwined. Bobbins are used to hold and feed the thread. Also called pillow lace or bobbinet.

Boiled Wool: A wool or wool blend fabric, woven or knitted which has been given a course, crepey texture by heavy felting or by putting it in a high temperature bath.

Boiling off: See degumming.

Boll: A seed case and its contents, as of cotton or flax.

Bonded: A fabric composed of 2 or more layers joined together with an adhesive ,resin, foam, or fusible membrane.

Bonding: A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion), or ultrasonic procedure. Bonded fabrics are commonly used in outerwear.

Bonding: The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics: usually a face fabric and a lining fabric of tricot: into one package. Special adhesives, binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent. Fabrics can also be bonded to ultra-thin slices of foam or other materials on the cutting tables, and make possible easier handling of fragile cloths such as delicate laces, sheer materials, or lightweight knits.

Bonnet: Ladies' headdress covering the back of the head and having the brim in funnel form to shade the face.

Book: A parcel of hanks of raw silk whose total mass is usually 2 kg.

Boot-hose: In the first half of the 17th century, stockings usually without feet worn in the soft fashionable boots with turned cup-shaped tops ("bucket"-tops). The lace-edge of the boot-hose is turned over the boot-tops. ("cavalier"-style). They were worn over the silk stockings to protect them in the long boots.

Border: A design placed along the edge of the fabric or engineered in such a way that it will fall on the edge of the finished product. Border designs are frequently used in skirts and dresses.

Botanical: Referring to designs dominated by motifs depicting plant life.

Botany Wool: A term applied to tops, yarns and fabrics made from merino wool. The term originated from botany bay in australia.

Boucle: Knitted or woven fabric with characteristic looped or knitted surface that often resembles a spongy effect. The term also applies to a variety of looped, curled or slubbed yarns. In french, boucle means "buckled" or "ringed".

Boucle: A fancy yarn with an irregular pattern of curls and loops 2. A fabric made from boucle yarn.

Bourdalou: Hat-ribbon, finer than grosgrain, round the foot of the crown of hats. This trimming is sometimes finished off with a buckle and has been in use since the 17th century.

Bourdon lace: A machine made lace on a mesh ground usually in a scroll design outlined with a heavy cord.

Bourette: A fancy plied yarn with nubs and knots of another color.

Bourette: See noil.

Bourrelet: A double knit fabric with a rippled , corded texture running horizontally.

Bow (woven fabric): Curvature of the warp or weft.
Note: A fabric is said to be warp-bowed or weft-bowed, according to which set of threads is curved. Weft bow may or may not extend over the full width of the fabric.

Bow-string hemp: See sansevieria.

Braid: Sometimes called passementerie or spaghetti by dress manufacturers who use it for trimming or binding. Usually refers to woven or plaited flat, round, or tubular narrow fabrics.

Brandenburg Coat: Fourth quarter of 17th century, a loose overcoat with turned-back cuffs. The sleeves are made in one with the rest of the garment.

Breaking (bast fibres): The deformation of the plant structure by flattening the stem, loosening the bond between the fibre bundles and the wood, and breaking the woody part into short pieces, to facilitate their removal from the fibre by scutching. Breaking by means of rollers is often referred to as rolling.

Breaking elongation; breaking extension: The elongation, or extension, of a substance at its breaking load.

Breaking Length: The length of a specimen whose weight is equal to the breaking load.

Breaking load; breaking force: The load that develops the breaking tension. The recommended unit of measurement is the newton.

Breaking Stress: The maximum stress developed in a specimen stretched to rupture. The force is usually related to the area of the unstrained specimen. If the actual stress, defined in terms of the area of the strained specimen, is used, then its maximum value is called the actual breaking stress.

Breaking Rension: The maximum tension developed in a specimen stretched to rupture. It is correctly expressed in newton's.

Breathability: The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.

Breathable Coated: Refers to a coating that repels water but allows water vapor (thus perspiration) to pass through, allowing garments to be comfortable and waterproof . Used in garments for active wear and winter sports.

Breaking Elongation (see breaking extension): Breaking extension ''breaking elongation'' the extension/elongation produced by the breaking force, i.e. the maximum force applied during a determination of breaking strength.

Breaking Strength: The maximum tensile force observed during a test in which the specimen is stretched until it breaks.

Breaking Stress: The maximum tension (expressed in newton) developed in a specimen stretched to rupture. Note: the force is usually related to the area of the unstrained specimen. If the actual stress, defined in terms of the area of the strained specimen, is used, then its maximum value is called "actual breaking stress".

Breaking Tension: note: Breaking tension, as defined, is independent of the acceleration due to gravity.

Breton Lace: Lace embroidered on an open net with heavy often brightly colored yarn. May be made by hand or machine. Said to have originated in the breton region of france.

Bright: Descriptive of textile materials, particularly man-made fibres, the normal lustre of which has not been reduce by physical or chemical means.

Bright: Descriptive of textile materials, particularly man-made fibres, the natural lustre of which has not been substantially reduced. Bright may denote the presence of a very small amount of delustrant, insufficient to reduce the lustre of the fibre significantly.

Brightening agent: See optical brightner.

Brin: A single filament of silk resulting from the degumming of the bave withdrawn from the cocoon.

Broad spectrum antimicrobial: An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just one type or kills many types.

Broadcloth: Originally a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual 29". Today, broadcloth refers to a tightly woven, lustrous cotton or polyester/cotton blend fabric in a plain weave with a crosswise rib. It resembles poplin, but the rib is finer, and broadcloth always has more crosswise yarns (picks) than poplin.

Broadcloth: A fine tightly woven plain weave fabric with a faint rib . Usually of cotton or cotton blend but can be of any fiber. Frequently used in men's shirts. 2. A fine soft woven wool fabric, plain or twill weave, with a smooth napped face.

Brocade: A heavy rich- looking jacquard fabric with contrasting surfaces or a multicolor design . Used in upholstery , draperies evening wear.

Brocade: A heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Common end-uses include such formal applications as upholstery, draperies, and eveningwear.

Brocatelle: A jacquard fabric similar to brocade with the design in a raised appearance from being formed with a satin or twill weave. Used in draperies and upholstery.

Broken twill: A general term for twill weave fabrics in which the twill line changes direction.

Brushing: A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used on a loosely constructed fabric to permit the fibers in the yarns to be raised to create a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.

Brushed/napped: A finishing process to raise a nap on surface of the fabric using wire brushes or other abrasive materials.

Brushstroke: Refers to a print style in which color looks as if it had been applied with a brush.

Brussels Lace: May be a bobbin or needlepoint lace usually on a machine made ground. Sometimes designs are appliqud on the ground. As brussels Belgium. is important in the history of lace-making, many different types of lace are called brussels lace.

Broken end (woven fabric): A warp-way line where a warp yarn is absent for part or all of a piece and that is caused by a warp yarn break that has not been repaired.

Broken Filaments: Rupture of individual filaments (usually during winding or weaving) that results in the appearance of a fibrous or hairy surface, which may be localised or general, in a fabric made from flat continuous filament yarn.

Broken Pick: A pick that is present for only part of the fabric width.

Bronzing: A coppery lustre on the surface of a fabric and caused by the presence of excessive dyestuff during dyeing or by precipitation of the dyestuff during the dyeing process. (see also gilding).

Bruised Place: An area of localised compression within a fabric.

Buckram: Ply yarn scrim fabric with a stiff finish for use as apparel interlining or interfacing. Also used in millinery because it can be easily shaped by moistening.

Buckram: A stiff , open weave, coarse fabric often used as an interlining to give a garment shape. Also used in hats, bookbinding.

Buckskin: A heavy satin weave fabric, often of fine merino wool, with a smooth face

Buffalo Check: A bold check pattern with blocks of 2 or 3 contrasting colors. Often red and black in a twill weave.

Bulked Yarn: A yarn that has been treated mechanically, physically or chemically so as to have a noticeably greater voluminosity or bulk.

Bunch (flax): The aggregate of pieces, which are tied up with two or more ties preparatory to baling.

Bunting: A plain, drapey, loosely woven fabric most often used for flags and decoration. Also called banner cloth.

Bunting: Can be either a cotton or wool fabric, woven in a plain open weave, similar to cheesecloth, and dyed in the piece. Cotton bunting is often woven with plied yarns. Wool bunting is woven with worsted worsted yarns, using strong, wiry wool.

Burl: A wool trade term for an imperfection.

Burlap/hessian: A coarse open fabric made of jute used for upholstery lining and bagging . When dyed or printed it is used in drapery, wall coverings, upholstery.

Burlap: Coarse, canvas-like fabric usually made of jute, but can be made of hemp or cotton. Sometimes called gunny. Used primarily for bale coverings, sacks and bags. Also used in furniture, drapery, wall coverings, and clothing.

Burn-out: A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color, during the burn-out printing process. (sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric, but leave the ground fabric unharmed.

Burn Out: A fabric made of 2 fibers then printed with a chemical that dissolves one of the fibers thus creating a design .often done on velvet.

Burry Wool: Wool contaminated with vegetable impurities adhering to the fleece.

Buta: Literally, "a plant". A floral motif, derived generally from persian sources, much used in indian textile design, and traditionally rendered as a flowering plant with a curling bud at the top. The motif is also sometimes reduced to a floral pattern designed within the form of the plant.

Butcher Linen: Coarse homespun linen once used for aprons for french butchers. Often imitated today in many man-made fiber fabrics that simulate real linen.

Butcher's Linen: A strong, heavy, plain weave linen fabric with uneven, thick and thin yarns in both warp and weft - often used in tablecloths and aprons.

Buti: A diminutive of buta (q.v.), Very commonly used in indian textile design.

Butt: To level the root ends of flax straw at any stage of processing by vibrating it upright on a flat surface, either by hand or mechanically.

Butter Muslin: See muslin.

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