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Glossary of Textile Terms and Definitions, J - Textile Dictionary

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Letter J 

Jabot: Originally the term meant the neck opening of the chemise, and its lavce trimmings, showing through the opening at the doublet. Early cravat of lace, often ready-made, worn during the 17th century. The lace fell in a soft bunch to the upper chest and was either knotted and draped or tied in a soft bow.

Jackboot: Over-knee high riding boot with square toes and low heel, made from stiff leather. Second half of 17th century.

Jacquard: A fabric with a complicated pattern woven or knit into it as part of its structure. For wovens, a jacquard loom is used which controls each warp yarn separately, raising or lowering it as needed during weaving to create the design. For knits a jacquard knitting machine creates the design by controlling whether individual needles knit, tuck, or miss.

Jacquard: Woven fabrics manufactured by using the jacquard attachment on the loom. This attachment provides intricate versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any type or complexity can be made. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics.

Jacquard Knit: A weft double knit fabric in which a jacquard type of mechanism is used. This device individually controls needles or small groups of needles, and allows very complex and highly patterned knits to be created.

Jacquard Mechanism: a) Knitting, a term in general use in the knitting industry, and applied to mechanisms for selection of knitting elements. b) weaving: A shedding (q.v.) mechanism (attached to the loom) that controls up to several hundred warp threads individually and thus enables intricate figured designs to be produced.

Jacquard (warp knitting): A term generally applied to a warp-knitting machine with a string-type jacquard placed above to control pins placed between specially shaped guides mounted in a normal guide bar. The pins when, raised do not affect the guides but when in a low position deflect individual guides in the guide bar to extend or reduce by one needle space the movement by the pattern chain or pattern wheel. A fall plate nay or may not be used. The term is also applied to a machine in which a string jacquard raises individual guides in a guide bar so reducing the lapping movement of these individual guides compared to that applied to the guide bar by the pattern chain or wheel.

Jaffer: A plain-weave cotton fabric with warp and weft in different colours producing a shot effect.

Jama: Full-sleeved outerwear for men, greatly popular at the moghul and rajput courts and worn well into the 19th century. Literally, "a garment, robe, vest, gown, coat.

Jamdani: Fine cotton muslin with a floral pattern brocaded in thick soft cotton. Dacca was a famous center for the production of fine jamdani work.

Janghia: Short drawers, worn by men and boys. From sanskrit.

Jaquard Mechanism (weaving): A shedding mechanism, attached to a loom, that gives individual control of up to several hundred warp threads and thus enables large figured designs to be produced. (named after the inventor, joseph marie jacquard, 1752-1834).

Jar: See zari.

Jaspe: A woven fabric with a series of faint stripes formed by the arrangement of light, medium, and dark warp yarns or by twisting together 2 yarns of different colors. Used for drapery, upholstery, suitings, etc.

Jasp, Jasper: A fabric that has a shaded appearance created by a warp thread colour pattern. It may be woven or figured, and is used for bedspreads or curtains.

Jean: A 2/1 warp-faced twill fabric used chiefly for overalls or casual wear. Typical cotton particulars 18s x 28s (32 x 21 Tex), 90 x 60 (35 ends/cm x 24 picks/cm).

Jerkin: Outer doublet worn in england in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. It was sleeveless or with loose sleeves.

Jersey: Single knit fabric with an intermeshing of stitches in the same direction on the face and a series of semicircular loops on the back. Thus the 2 sides appear different. 2. A general term referring to any knit fabric without a distinct rib.

Jersey Fabric: The consistent interlooping of yarns in the jersey stitch to produces a fabric with a smooth, flat face, and a more textured, but uniform back. Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting machines.

Jersey Stitch: A basic stitch used in weft knitting, in which each loop formed in the knit is identical. The jersey stitch is also called the plain, felt, or stockinet stitch.

Jet Craters: Annular deposits that sometimes form around the holes on the face of jets used in the extrusion of viscose. (see also jet rings.)

Jet-Dyeing Machine: A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form and in which the fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye liquor circulated at high velocity.
B) a machine for dyeing garments and in which the garments are circulated by jets of liquid rather than by mechanical means.

Jet-Dyeing Machine: A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form in which the fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye-liquor circulated at a high velocity., (2) a machine for dyeing garments in which the garments are circulated by jets of liquid rather by mechanical means.

Jet Rings: Annular deposits formed occasionally inside the holes of metal jets or spinnerets when used in the extrusion of viscose, particularly into coagulants containing much zinc sulphate.

Jet Spinning: A system of staple-fibre spinning which utilises air to apply the twisting couple to the yarn during its formation. The air is blown through small holes arranged tangentially to the yarn surface and this causes the yarn to rotate. The majority of systems using this technique produce fasciated yarns, but by using two air jets operating in opposing twist directions it is possible to produce yarns with more controlled properties but of more complex structure.

Jhabba: Loose, tunic-like garment.

Jhula: A kind of blouse for children.

Jhumb: A covering for the head and body made simply by tying a sheet or blanket at one end and draped over the head.

Jig (jigger): A dyeing machine in which fabric, in open width, is transferred repeatedly from one roller to another and passes each time through a dyebath of relatively small volume.
Note: jigs are also frequently used for scouring, bleaching and finishing.

Jupe: From the Arabic djuba, jacket. Jupe had two meanings from the middle ages on towards the mid 17th century, jacket and skirt. Only in 1672 did the dictionnaire de l'acadmie francaise define the term jupe, "part of women's costume, from the waist to the feet." The term had disappeared by then from men's costume, except for the panels of certain garments. From the 1670s on jupe/skirt corresponds with the modern meaning. In the 17th century women wore 3 jupes one on top of the other the modeste, a top skirt which often trailed; the friponne in the middle, which covered the secrte, the underskirt. The latter two reached the ground.

Justaucorps: Male coat developed in the second half of the 17th century. Tight fitting in the shoulders, collarless and with flaring skirts and knee-length. The flare was extended and made wider until the early 18th century. Later the coat became narrow, cut away in the front and sides, with a standing collar. (second half of 18th century). Justeaucorps from french "juste-au-corps" = close fitting on the body.

Jute: A coarse, brown fiber from the stalk of a bast plant. Chiefly from india, this fiber is used primarily for gunny sacks, bags, cordage, and binding threads in carpets and rugs.

Jute: The fibre obtained from the bast layer of the plants corchorus capsularis and corchorus olitorius., Note 1:commercially, jute is divided into two main classes, white jute generally being associated with corchorus capsularis, and dark jute with corchorus olitorius., Note 2:each of the above-noted classes is further sub-divided into numerous grades denoting quality and other characteristics.

Jute-spun: Descriptive of staple yarn that has been prepared and spun on machinery originally designed for spinning yarns from jute. 

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